Eisenstadt, Australia
Eisenstadt, Australia

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Compant S.,CNRS Chemical Engineering Laboratory | Gangl H.,Bundesamt fur Weinbau | Sessitsch A.,AIT Austrian Institute of Technology
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

It is well documented that endophytic bacteria can colonize vegetative plant organs, but the evidence is still scarce regarding colonization of internal tissues of fruits and seeds. We previously gave indications on which taxa can inhabit under natural conditions fruits and seeds of grapevine and studied their niches of colonization. In this study we particularly investigated colonization of Bacillus spp., which colonize fruits and seeds of grapevine plants endophytically. Bacteria were visualized via fluorescence in situ hybridization inside berry pulp and seeds of grapevine grown in an Austrian vineyard. The bacteria colonized intercellular spaces inside the pulp of berries. Although it is difficult to visualize bacteria inside seeds due to the difficulty to make sections for microscopy, we could demonstrate that these bacteria can also be detected along some cell walls inside seeds in few sections, whereas in other sections no bacteria were observed. The findings further demonstrated that plant-colonizing bacteria can establish endophytic subpopulations inside parts of fruits and seeds of grapevine plants.


Compant S.,AIT Austrian Institute of Technology | Compant S.,CNRS Chemical Engineering Laboratory | Compant S.,Toulouse University Midi-Pyrénées | Mitter B.,AIT Austrian Institute of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Microbial Ecology | Year: 2011

Endophytic bacteria can colonize various plants and organs. However, endophytes colonizing plant reproductive organs have been rarely analyzed. In this study, endophytes colonizing flowers as well as berries and seeds of grapevine plants grown under natural conditions were investigated by cultivation as well as by fluorescence in situ hybridization. For comparison, bacteria were additionally isolated from other plant parts and the rhizosphere and characterized. Flowers, fruits, and seeds hosted various endophytic bacteria. Some taxa were specifically isolated from plant reproductive organs, whereas others were also detected in the rhizosphere, endorhiza or grape inflo/infructescence stalk at the flowering or berry harvest stage. Microscopic analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization of resin-embedded samples confirmed the presence of the isolated taxa in plant reproductive organs and enabled us to localize them within the plant. Gammaproteobacteria (including Pseudomonas spp.) and Firmicutes (including Bacillus spp.) were visualized inside the epidermis and xylem of ovary and/or inside flower ovules. Firmicutes, mainly Bacillus spp. were additionally visualized inside berries, in the intercellular spaces of pulp cells and/or xylem of pulp, but also along some cell walls inside parts of seeds. Analysis of cultivable bacteria as well as microscopic results indicated that certain endophytic bacteria can colonize flowers, berries, or seeds. Our results also indicated that some specific taxa may not only derive from the root environment but also from other sources such as the anthosphere. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Tiefenbrunner W.,Bundesamt fur Weinbau | Wechselberger K.,Bio Forschung Austria | Gangl H.,Bundesamt fur Weinbau | Schmid R.,Bio Forschung Austria | And 3 more authors.
Mitteilungen Klosterneuburg | Year: 2012

At three sites in Burgenland (Kleinhöflein, Ritzing, Frauenkirchen) it was investigated how vineyard cover crops affect the cicada fauna in the interrows and the canopy. Particular attention was put on species which can function as pathogen vectors. Permanent green covers with native plants and a commercial cover crop mixture particularly rich in legumes (6 species), Brassicaceae (4 species) and containing seven species from other families (Malvaceae, Polygonaceae, Poaceae and Rosaceae) were compared. Cover crops had no significant infl uence on the composition of the cicada fauna in the canopy and also not on the frequency of each species. There was also no significant correlation between population density in the canopy and in the green cover. In comparison to the cicada fauna of the interrows, which predominantly consists of Deltocephalinae, the biodiversity of the canopy is low and dominated by Typhlocybinae. The cicada species composition of the two variants of cover crops can be clearly differentiated by multivariate analysis, the faunas of sample sites with cover crop mixture are much more similar than those from sites with permanent green cover. Many species which primarily use Poaceae and other monocots as hosts, are significantly more frequent in the permanent green cover, while species that prefer herbs, are more abundant in the cover of the crop mixture. The relation between green cover variant and preferences for nutritional plants is significant at the site Kleinhöflein. Despite the similar composition of the cover crop mixture, the associated cicada fauna at the three sites is significantly different. Besides the coverings the position of the sampling on the slope also affects the cicada fauna. The influence of green cover especially on pathogen vectors and other vine pests is discussed.


Lopandic K.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Pfliegler W.P.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Tiefenbrunner W.,Bundesamt fur Weinbau | Gangl H.,Bundesamt fur Weinbau | And 2 more authors.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2016

The yeasts of the Saccharomyces genus exhibit a low pre-zygotic barrier and readily form interspecies hybrids. Following the hybridization event, the parental genomes undergo gross chromosomal rearrangements and genome modifications that may markedly influence the metabolic activity of descendants. In the present study, two artificially constructed hybrid yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae x Saccharomyces uvarum and S. cerevisiae x Saccharomyces kudriavzevii) were used in order to evaluate the influence of high-sugar wine fermentation on the evolution of their genotypic and phenotypic properties. It was demonstrated that the extent of genomic modifications differs among the hybrids and their progeny, but that stress should not always be a generator of large genomic disturbances. The major genome changes were observed after meiosis in the F1 segregants in the form of the loss of different non-S. cerevisiae chromosomes. Under fermentation condition, each spore clone from a tetrad developed a mixed population characterized by different genotypic and phenotypic properties. The S. cerevisiae x S. uvarum spore clones revealed large modifications at the sequence level of the S. cerevisiae sub-genome, and some of the clones lost a few additional S. cerevisiae and S. uvarum chromosomes. The S. cerevisiae x S. kudriavzevii segregants were subjected to consecutive loss of the S. kudriavzevii markers and chromosomes. Both the hybrid types showed increased ethanol and glycerol production as well as better sugar consumption than their parental strains. The hybrid segregants responded differently to stress and a correlation was found between the observed genotypes and fermentation performances. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


PubMed | Bundesamt fur Weinbau, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Hungarian Academy of Sciences and Debrecen University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Applied microbiology and biotechnology | Year: 2016

The yeasts of the Saccharomyces genus exhibit a low pre-zygotic barrier and readily form interspecies hybrids. Following the hybridization event, the parental genomes undergo gross chromosomal rearrangements and genome modifications that may markedly influence the metabolic activity of descendants. In the present study, two artificially constructed hybrid yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae x Saccharomyces uvarum and S. cerevisiae x Saccharomyces kudriavzevii) were used in order to evaluate the influence of high-sugar wine fermentation on the evolution of their genotypic and phenotypic properties. It was demonstrated that the extent of genomic modifications differs among the hybrids and their progeny, but that stress should not always be a generator of large genomic disturbances. The major genome changes were observed after meiosis in the F1 segregants in the form of the loss of different non-S. cerevisiae chromosomes. Under fermentation condition, each spore clone from a tetrad developed a mixed population characterized by different genotypic and phenotypic properties. The S. cerevisiae x S. uvarum spore clones revealed large modifications at the sequence level of the S. cerevisiae sub-genome, and some of the clones lost a few additional S. cerevisiae and S. uvarum chromosomes. The S. cerevisiae x S. kudriavzevii segregants were subjected to consecutive loss of the S. kudriavzevii markers and chromosomes. Both the hybrid types showed increased ethanol and glycerol production as well as better sugar consumption than their parental strains. The hybrid segregants responded differently to stress and a correlation was found between the observed genotypes and fermentation performances.


Flak W.,Bundesamt fur Weinbau | Wuketich A.,Bundesamt fur Weinbau | Krizan R.,Bundesamt fur Weinbau | Tiefenbrunner W.,Bundesamt fur Weinbau | Wallner E.,Bundesamt fur Weinbau
Mitteilungen Klosterneuburg | Year: 2012

The sensory profifile of wines is always a result of various natural and human-related parameters, which in their totality make up the so-called terroir. These regional factors all have a more or less signifificant impact on the vine and its derived products and determine their typicity. In determining these region-specific conditions, the quantitative descriptive sensory evaluation offers the advantage of being based on actual tasting results, whereas analytical results are usually not relevant for sensory evaluations (detection threshold). Limiting factors for the sensory determination of the terroir are organoleptic capacities in perceiving, processing and memorising the huge number of wine-related descriptors. This deficit, however, is largely compensated through multiple evaluations of a sample (tasters' panel) and extensive questionnaires, which are processed gradually and deliberately. Calculating the individual descriptive results in ratios (terms), that describe the essential sensory characteristics of wine, allows reproducible conclusions on typicity and hence on origin (terroir) of a wine. With Leithaberg- DAC wines it could be shown that an allocation of diff erent source rocks (limestone, shale) to the original vineyards is possible. For better visualisation of the results terms were developed ('Term-Frucht - TF; 'Term-Gehalt' - TG; 'Term-Boden' - TB) and combined in a so-called terroir triangle.


Tiefenbrunner W.,Bundesamt fur Weinbau | Gangl H.,Bundesamt fur Weinbau | Leitner G.,Bundesamt fur Weinbau | Riedle-Bauer M.,Lehr und Forschungszentrum fur Wein und Obstbau | Tiefenbrunner A.,LMS Data
Mitteilungen Klosterneuburg | Year: 2011

In all Austrian winegrowing regions soil samples were taken from viticultural as well as agricultural areas and tested for nematodes of the family Longidoridae. In order to obtain a complete overview of the distribution of Longidoridae, samples were also taken from the riparian forests along the rivers Danube and March. Six species of the genus Xiphinema have been found in Austria up to now, but in vineyards only the following within the framework of this study: X. vuittenezi, the most present and abundant Longidoridae, and the X. americanum s. l. species X. brevicollum and X. pachtaicum. The latter is frequently found in vineyards north of the central Burgenland. The virus vectors X. index and X. diversicaudatum are rare according to current knowledge, although X. diversicaudatum is fairly abundant in common pastures and under fruit trees in Styria. Ten species of the genus Longidorus were found, two of which reached a high abundance in some samples: L. leptocephalus and L. raskii. The species L. elongatus, L. leptocephalus and L. poessneckensis are fairly widespread. Four species of this genus are vectors of various plant viruses: L. arthensis, L. attenuatus, L. elongatus and L. macrosoma. L. attenuatus transfers a grapevine virosis. From the genus Paralongidorus the species P. maximus, vector of a grapevine virus, has been found.


Flak W.,Bundesamt fur Weinbau | Tiefenbrunner W.,Bundesamt fur Weinbau | Krizan R.,Bundesamt fur Weinbau | Wallner E.,Bundesamt fur Weinbau | Wuketich A.,Bundesamt fur Weinbau
Mitteilungen Klosterneuburg | Year: 2011

By means of wines from the 'Grüner Veltliner' variety of two vintages (2007, 2008) from the winegrowing region Wagram the reproducibility of descriptive tasting assessments and varying manifestations of fruitiness were defined. Furthermore an attempt was made to display the flavour profile of wines by factors based on descriptive evaluations. The so-called 'Term-Frucht' expresses the ratio between fresh and ripe fruit attributes, the 'Term-Gehalt' reflects notes of earthiness in relation to the impression extract/alcohol. The quotient of these two factors ('Wein-Term'; WT) describes the balance between fruity and full-bodied flavour effects in a wine. This 'Wein-Term' is generally determined by processing variants and vintages as well as the origin of the wine. In another part of the study wines of the 'Blaufränkisch' variety from three Burgenland DAC regions were evaluated with quantitative sensory assessments; results allowed a statistical differentiation of their origin by PCA.


Gangl H.,Bundesamt fur Weinbau | Leitner G.,Bundesamt fur Weinbau | Hack C.,Bundesamt fur Weinbau | Tiefenbrunner W.,Bundesamt fur Weinbau
Mitteilungen Klosterneuburg | Year: 2011

In the winegrowing regions of Austria the distribution of 14 grape viruses was analyzed. GLRaV-1, -2, -3 and -6, GFkV, GFLV, ArMV, TBRV and SLRSV were detected. GLRaV-1 is the most frequent virus; nearly 24 % of the analyzed grapes were infected. The abundance was the highest in Western Styria (44 %) and the virus was frequent along the Danube and in Mittelburgenland, too. 5 % of the samples were infected with GLRaV-3, the second most abundant leaf roll virus. Although the vector spectrum of GLRaV-1 and -3 overlaps, the distribution pattern of both is not similar, at least not so in the south of Austria. GLRaV-6 is rare (0.4 %) and could not be found at all in the south. Only few samples were analyzed for GLRaV-2. The nepoviruses GFLV and ArMV are not frequent in Austria but due to the inhomogeneity of their distribution in some localities they are of economical importance. In Western Styria ArMV was detected in 59 % of all samples. Only some virus-positive vines with TBRV and SLRSV were detected. GFkV is the second most frequent virus which was detected in 13 % of all samples. Its distribution is more homogenous than that of all other viruses.


Riedle-Bauer M.,Hohere Bundeslehranstalt und Bundesamt fur Wein und Obstbau Klosterneuburg | Hanak K.,Hohere Bundeslehranstalt und Bundesamt fur Wein und Obstbau Klosterneuburg | Regner F.,Hohere Bundeslehranstalt und Bundesamt fur Wein und Obstbau Klosterneuburg | Tiefenbrunner W.,Bundesamt fur Weinbau
Journal of Phytopathology | Year: 2010

In recent years, visual and analytical observations revealed a significant increase of 'Bois noir' (BN) in Austrian vineyards. Removing infected parts by pruning can prevent or reduce spread of the pathogen within the vines. Knowledge about the effect of pruning practices on recovery rates is essential for grapevine growers. Vines showing BN for the first time were visually categorized into classes of symptoms according to disease severity. In the ensuing winter, plants were pollarded 15 cm above the graft union (511 vines), cane pruned (529 vines) or spur pruned (heavy pruning of canes leaving spurs only; 31 vines). Pollarding resulted in significantly higher recovery rates (yearly average 62-84%) in the next growing season and significantly lower recurrence rates in the following years than cane pruning (yearly average 29-49% in the next growing season). Spur pruning was statistically indistinguishable from cane pruning. Our data allowed the conclusion that extensive removal of infected wood is crucial for immediate and persistent success of pruning measures. Recovery was significantly influenced by the severity of BN, by the cultivar and by the observation year. With pollarding treatments, a significant correlation between recovery and plant age was noticed. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

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