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There is already a range of international financial instruments for the conservation of biodiversity encompassing transfer payments through official development assistance (ODA), funding from NGOs and foundations as well as international payments for ecosystem services (IPES) or other market-based instruments. In addition, new innovative mechanisms are discussed, the current development of a mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD plus)7 under the Framework Convention on Climate Change being a remarkable example.


Von Nordheim H.,Bundesamt fur Naturschutz BfN | Packeiser T.,Naturschutzbund Deutschland e. V. NABU | Durussel C.,International Union for Conservation of Nature IUCN
Natur und Landschaft | Year: 2011

In the context of the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) and subsequently under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) the international community has agreed to establish, by 2012, globally representative networks of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Furthermore, the CBD set the target for these MPA networks to collectively encompass at least 10% of the world's oceans by 2020. By July 2010 however, only 1.17 % of the ocean surface has been covered by MPAs - unevenly distributed across the various biogeographic regions, with the vast majority designated in nearshore waters. The full range of threatened marine species, habitats and ecosystems is thus not yet representatively covered by the current global network of MPAs. Despite remarkable progress in certain regions, considerable efforts are still needed, both nationally and internationally, to meet the agreed targets and thereby contribute to the effective protection of the biological diversity in the world's oceans.


Von Nordheim H.,Bundesamt fur Naturschutz BfN | Boedeker D.,Bundesamt fur Naturschutz BfN | Packeiser T.,Naturschutzbund Deutschland e. V. NABU | Ranft S.,University of Vechta
Natur und Landschaft | Year: 2011

In 2010, ministerial conferences of the Helsinki Commission as well as the OSPAR Commission assessed the results of the activities agreed in 2003 in Bremen, with the aim of establishing a joint and ecologically coherent network of protected areas in the Baltic Sea and the North-East Atlantic. Under both Conventions substantial progress has been achieved, with Germany leading the relevant processes. The HELCOM Baltic Sea Protected Area (BSPA) network, under development since 1994, today comprises 159 BSPAs (48,784 km2) collectively covering 10.3 % of the maritime area of the Helsinki Convention. Within the substantially larger OSPAR maritime area a network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) is being developed since 1998. Today, it comprises 165 sites (427,322 km2) and encompasses 3.1 % of the North-East Atlantic, including since September 2010 six MPAs in marine areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ) - a globally unprecedented step creating the first regional network of MPAs in the High Seas. However, the assessment also shows that neither HELCOM nor OSPAR have yet established a comprehensive and ecologically coherent network of MPAs.

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