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Toledo R.,University of Valencia | Radev V.,Bulgarian Food Safety Agency | Kanev I.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Gardner S.L.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Fried B.,Lafayette College
Acta Parasitologica | Year: 2014

Echinostomatidae (Trematoda) is the largest family within the class Trematoda. Members of this family have been studied for many years in relation to their utility as basic research models in biodiversity and systematics and also as experimental models in parasitology since they offer many advantages. Echinostomes have contributed significantly to numerous developments in many areas studied by parasitologists and experimental biologists. In this review, we examine the history of the echinostomebased studies from the beginnings to the present. For this purpose, we have divided the history of echinostomes into four periods (i.e. 18th and 19th centuries, first half of the 20th century, second half of the 20th century and the late 20th and 21th century) according to the types of studies performed in each of them. Moreover, we also briefly review the history of echinostome infections in humans. © 2014 Versita Warsaw.

Martinez-Lopez B.,University of California at Davis | Martinez-Lopez B.,Complutense University of Madrid | Alexandrov T.,Bulgarian Food Safety Agency | Mur L.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 2 more authors.
Geospatial Health | Year: 2014

The spatial pattern and epidemiology of backyard pig farming and other low bio-security pig production systems and their role in the occurrence of classical swine fever (CSF) is described and evaluated. A spatial Bayesian model was used to explore the risk factors, including human demographics, socioeconomic and environmental factors. The analyses were performed for Bulgaria, which has a large number of backyard farms (96% of all pig farms in the country are classified as backyard farms), and it is one of the countries for which both backyard pig and farm counts were available. Results reveal that the high-risk areas are typically concentrated in areas with small family farms, high numbers of outgoing pig shipments and low levels of personal consumption (i.e. economically deprived areas). Identification of risk factors and high-risk areas for CSF will allow to targeting risk-based surveillance strategies leading to prevention, control and, ultimately, elimination of the disease in Bulgaria and other countries with similar socio-epidemiological conditions.

Vukovic G.,Institute of Public Health | Shtereva D.,Plant Protection Institute | Bursic V.,University of Novi Sad | Mladenova R.,Bulgarian Food Safety Agency | Lazic S.,University of Novi Sad
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Babies and small children are especially sensitive population to the exposure to environmental contaminants. Their small mass and developing systems, including brain development may show adverse health effects from even low levels of contamination on a chronic or single dose case. In this paper one extraction method and two chromatographic techniques for the determination of pesticide residues in baby food were evaluated. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technique combined with electrospray ionization (ESI), (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection (GC-MSD) technique were applied in the detection of 50 pesticides in baby food. So-called QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method was used as a sample preparation procedure. The recoveries were investigated at three levels (5, 10 and 50 μg/kg) and the results obtained showed compliance with the contemporary EU requirements with a few exceptions. LOQs for most of the tested pesticides were below the EU MRLs (10 μg/kg), except deltamethrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, phosalone and beta-cyfluthrin (LOQs were 10 μg/kg). Both techniques were applied in the analysis of 50 samples of baby food manufactured in Serbia. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Nenova V.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Bogoeva I.,Bulgarian Food Safety Agency
Journal of Plant Interactions | Year: 2014

The effect of stress combinations on plants cannot be extrapolated from the response to each of the applied stressors. Greenhouse experiments were carried out on soil to which copper ions were introduced at four concentrations (0, 150, 400, and 600 mg kg-1). Copper treatments without or with Fusarium infection were established. Both stress factors, applied separately or together inhibited growth with the exception of the lowest Cu concentration, which stimulated growth of healthy plants. Depending on concentration, Cu did not change or increased the activity of root peroxidase and leaf catalase, and decreased ascorbate peroxidase (APO) activity in leaves and roots. Infection increased the activities of the enzymes with exception of root APO. The simultaneous presence of these two stress factors modified their individual effects. Generally, the stress combination aggravated the plant status though an opposite trend was observed in some cases. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.

A brief review of nanotechnology application in detection of mycotoxins and in agriculture sector was presented. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi. Their toxicity is the reason for implementation of various screening methods to detect them. During the last years, the highlight was put on nanoscale materials included in biosensors, which were some of the smart devices used for determination of mycotoxins, and in agriculture sector. Over the next decade, the progress of nanotechnology will demonstrated a way to improve detection of contaminated feed and food. To achieve this purpose the innovations of nanomaterials reported every year would be applied. In the paper, some of the applications developed by nanotechnology that would contribute to the implementation of new tools for analysis of mycotoxins and agricultural products were discussed. © 2015, University of Zagreb - Faculty of Agriculture. All rights reserved.

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