Martinez-Lopez B.,University of California at Davis |
Martinez-Lopez B.,Complutense University of Madrid |
Alexandrov T.,Bulgarian Food Safety Agency |
Mur L.,Complutense University of Madrid |
And 2 more authors.
Geospatial Health | Year: 2014
The spatial pattern and epidemiology of backyard pig farming and other low bio-security pig production systems and their role in the occurrence of classical swine fever (CSF) is described and evaluated. A spatial Bayesian model was used to explore the risk factors, including human demographics, socioeconomic and environmental factors. The analyses were performed for Bulgaria, which has a large number of backyard farms (96% of all pig farms in the country are classified as backyard farms), and it is one of the countries for which both backyard pig and farm counts were available. Results reveal that the high-risk areas are typically concentrated in areas with small family farms, high numbers of outgoing pig shipments and low levels of personal consumption (i.e. economically deprived areas). Identification of risk factors and high-risk areas for CSF will allow to targeting risk-based surveillance strategies leading to prevention, control and, ultimately, elimination of the disease in Bulgaria and other countries with similar socio-epidemiological conditions.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2013.1.3-05 | Award Amount: 11.61M | Year: 2013
EFFORT studies the complex epidemiology and ecology of antimicrobial resistance and the interactions between bacterial communities, commensals and pathogens in animals, the food chain and the environment.This will be conducted by a combination of epidemiological and ecological studies using newly developed molecular and bio-informatics technologies. EFFORT will include an exposure assessment of humans from animal/environmental sources. The ecological studies on isolates will be verified by in vitro and in vivo studies. Moreover, real-life intervention studies will be conducted aiming at reducing the use of antimicrobials in veterinary practice. Focus will be on understanding the eco-epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance from animal origin and based on this, predicting and limiting the future evolution and exposure to humans of the most clinically important resistance by synthesising different sources of information in our prediction models. Through its results, the EFFORT research will provide scientific evidence and high quality data that will inform decision makers, the scientific community and other stakeholders about the consequences of AMR in the food chain, in relation to animal health and welfare, food safety and economic aspects. These results can be used to support political decisions and to prioritize risk management options along the food chain. The EFFORT consortium is made up of 20 partners from 10 European countries: Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain and Switzerland. The senior investigators leading this proposal bring together complementary strengths antimicrobial resistance, food safety, epidemiology of food borne pathogens and risk modelling, environmental epidemiology and microbial ecology, exposure assessment, veterinary microbiology, preventive molecular characterization of AMR, genetics and biology of DNA transfer mechanisms, whole genome sequencing for bacteria and economics of animal diseases
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2012.1.3-02 | Award Amount: 6.53M | Year: 2012
African Swine Fever (ASF) is a devastating disease affecting swine caused by a complex virus, the only member of the Asfarviridae family. Disease transmission is maintained under different and complex epidemiological scenarios involving domestic and wild swine and arthropod vectors (soft ticks Ornithodoros sp). Due to the fact that no vaccine has been obtained so far, prevention, control, and eradication of the disease is mainly based on the early detection and the implementation of strict sanitary measures. The disease is endemic in Sub-Saharan countries of Africa and in EU member states is currently confined to Italy (Sardinia). Since 2007 ASF was declared in Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan and in the Russia Federation where continues spreading out of control, posing a serious threat to EU countries. This project will provide i) essential information to design more cost-effective surveillance and control strategies for ASF into different risk scenarios, ii) data essential to identify risk factors for designing new control strategies including wildlife considerations (role of wild boar and argasids) and iii) advance work leading to vaccine development through rational deletion of genes to produce attenuated and non-replicating candidate ASFV vaccine strains and identification of protective antigens and their incorporation into vectored virus vaccines. Additionally the project will improve preparedness for ASF at different levels with workshops targeting pig farmers, hunters, pig veterinarians and governmental agencies in EU and ASF affected countries. Knowledge and new technologies developed within the project will be disseminated through multiple information channels (publications, mass media, Internet). Outputs of this project will provide policy makers with valuable decision support tools to better prevent and control ASF.
Valdazo-Gonzalez B.,The Pirbright Institute |
Polihronova L.,National Diagnostic and Research Veterinary Medical Institute |
Alexandrov T.,Bulgarian Food Safety Agency |
Normann P.,Technical University of Denmark |
And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Improvements to sequencing protocols and the development of computational phylogenetics have opened up opportunities to study the rapid evolution of RNA viruses in real time. In practical terms, these results can be combined with field data in order to reconstruct spatiotemporal scenarios that describe the origin and transmission pathways of viruses during an epidemic. In the case of notifiable diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), these analyses provide important insights into the epidemiology of field outbreaks that can support disease control programmes. This study reconstructs the origin and transmission history of the FMD outbreaks which occurred during 2011 in Burgas Province, Bulgaria, a country that had been previously FMD-free-without-vaccination since 1996. Nineteen full genome sequences (FGS) of FMD virus (FMDV) were generated and analysed, including eight representative viruses from all of the virus-positive outbreaks of the disease in the country and 11 closely-related contemporary viruses from countries in the region where FMD is endemic (Turkey and Israel). All Bulgarian sequences shared a single putative common ancestor which was closely related to the index case identified in wild boar. The closest relative from outside of Bulgaria was a FMDV collected during 2010 in Bursa (Anatolia, Turkey). Within Bulgaria, two discrete genetic clusters were detected that corresponded to two episodes of outbreaks that occurred during January and March-April 2011. The number of nucleotide substitutions that were present between, and within, these separate clusters provided evidence that undetected FMDV infection had occurred. These conclusions are supported by laboratory data that subsequently identified three additional FMDV-infected livestock premises by serosurveillance, as well as a number of antibody positive wild boar on both sides of the border with Turkish Thrace. This study highlights how FGS analysis can be used as an effective on-the-spot tool to support and help direct epidemiological investigations of field outbreaks. © 2012 Valdazo-González et al.
Toledo R.,University of Valencia |
Radev V.,Bulgarian Food Safety Agency |
Kanev I.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln |
Gardner S.L.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln |
Fried B.,Lafayette College
Acta Parasitologica | Year: 2014
Echinostomatidae (Trematoda) is the largest family within the class Trematoda. Members of this family have been studied for many years in relation to their utility as basic research models in biodiversity and systematics and also as experimental models in parasitology since they offer many advantages. Echinostomes have contributed significantly to numerous developments in many areas studied by parasitologists and experimental biologists. In this review, we examine the history of the echinostomebased studies from the beginnings to the present. For this purpose, we have divided the history of echinostomes into four periods (i.e. 18th and 19th centuries, first half of the 20th century, second half of the 20th century and the late 20th and 21th century) according to the types of studies performed in each of them. Moreover, we also briefly review the history of echinostome infections in humans. © 2014 Versita Warsaw.
Vukovic G.,Institute of Public Health |
Shtereva D.,Plant Protection Institute |
Bursic V.,University of Novi Sad |
Mladenova R.,Bulgarian Food Safety Agency |
Lazic S.,University of Novi Sad
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012
Babies and small children are especially sensitive population to the exposure to environmental contaminants. Their small mass and developing systems, including brain development may show adverse health effects from even low levels of contamination on a chronic or single dose case. In this paper one extraction method and two chromatographic techniques for the determination of pesticide residues in baby food were evaluated. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technique combined with electrospray ionization (ESI), (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection (GC-MSD) technique were applied in the detection of 50 pesticides in baby food. So-called QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method was used as a sample preparation procedure. The recoveries were investigated at three levels (5, 10 and 50 μg/kg) and the results obtained showed compliance with the contemporary EU requirements with a few exceptions. LOQs for most of the tested pesticides were below the EU MRLs (10 μg/kg), except deltamethrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, phosalone and beta-cyfluthrin (LOQs were 10 μg/kg). Both techniques were applied in the analysis of 50 samples of baby food manufactured in Serbia. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Alexandrov T.,Bulgarian Food Safety Agency |
Kamenov P.,Bulgarian Food Safety Agency |
Stefanov D.,Regional Veterinary Office |
Depner K.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute
OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique | Year: 2011
Between August and November 2009, eight cases of classical swine fever (CSF) occurred in young wild boar in a 25-km2oak forest 3 km south of the river Danube in the north-eastern part of Bulgaria. The wild boar population within the affected area was estimated to be 156 animals, or approximately six boar per km2. To control and eradicate the disease, and in addition to vaccination and hunting, trapping was used to reduce the boar population to below two animals per km2. In total, 124 wild boar were removed from the infected area within three months. Of these, 119 were trapped. In this paper, the authors present trapping as a successful tool to eradicate CSF from an area where hunting and vaccination alone might not be sufficient. Up to seven wild boar could be trapped in a single trap. Furthermore, the spread of CSF virus to the local domestic pig population and to wild boar in neighbouring areas was prevented. By decreasing the wild boar population to fewer than two animals per km2, it was assumed that the virus would no longer circulate and the disease would fade out. In fact, no further CSF cases were diagnosed afterwards. Under Bulgarian and similar conditions, trapping seems to be a more reliable method than hunting for reducing a wild boar population within a short period of time. Furthermore, trapping may be used alone or in combination with hunting, depending on the situation.
Stoilova N.A.,Bulgarian Food Safety Agency |
Surleva A.R.,University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy of Sofia |
Stoev G.,Bulgarian Food Safety Agency
Food Analytical Methods | Year: 2013
A confirmatory analytical method for simultaneous determination of nine regulated quinolones (Council Regulation 2377/90/ECC) in six matrices of animal origin is proposed. The sample pretreatment involves double step liquid extraction with acetonitrile and purification by solid-phase extraction on Oasis HLB cartridges. The quinolones were separated by liquid chromatography on C18 Zorbax column with gradient elution program. Aqueous formic acid, methanol, and acetonitrile were used as a mobile phase. A multi-wavelength excitation/emission program was used for sensitive fluorescence detection of quinolones. The proposed sample pretreatment protocol was applied to each of the six studied matrices without any modification. The method was validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657 EC. Residues were quantified down to 15 μg kg-1 with limits of detection and quantification ranging from 3 to 50 μg kg-1 and from 7. 5 to 100 μg kg-1, respectively. The recoveries at the maximum residual limits (MRLs) were between 77 and 120 % with RSD values lower than 30 %. For quinolones without established MRL or maximum required performance limit, the accuracy and precision of the method were estimated at concentration levels corresponding to the lowest linear calibration point and recoveries between 70 and 130 % were achieved. Decision limits, detection capability, and linear range in eggs, milk, fish, ovine muscle, chicken muscle, and porcine kidney are also reported. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Nenova V.,Bulgarian Academy of Science |
Bogoeva I.,Bulgarian Food Safety Agency
Journal of Plant Interactions | Year: 2014
The effect of stress combinations on plants cannot be extrapolated from the response to each of the applied stressors. Greenhouse experiments were carried out on soil to which copper ions were introduced at four concentrations (0, 150, 400, and 600 mg kg-1). Copper treatments without or with Fusarium infection were established. Both stress factors, applied separately or together inhibited growth with the exception of the lowest Cu concentration, which stimulated growth of healthy plants. Depending on concentration, Cu did not change or increased the activity of root peroxidase and leaf catalase, and decreased ascorbate peroxidase (APO) activity in leaves and roots. Infection increased the activities of the enzymes with exception of root APO. The simultaneous presence of these two stress factors modified their individual effects. Generally, the stress combination aggravated the plant status though an opposite trend was observed in some cases. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.
Sertova N.M.,Bulgarian Food Safety Agency
Journal of Central European Agriculture | Year: 2015
A brief review of nanotechnology application in detection of mycotoxins and in agriculture sector was presented. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi. Their toxicity is the reason for implementation of various screening methods to detect them. During the last years, the highlight was put on nanoscale materials included in biosensors, which were some of the smart devices used for determination of mycotoxins, and in agriculture sector. Over the next decade, the progress of nanotechnology will demonstrated a way to improve detection of contaminated feed and food. To achieve this purpose the innovations of nanomaterials reported every year would be applied. In the paper, some of the applications developed by nanotechnology that would contribute to the implementation of new tools for analysis of mycotoxins and agricultural products were discussed. © 2015, University of Zagreb - Faculty of Agriculture. All rights reserved.