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Quetta, Pakistan
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Masood J.,BUITEMS | Samad A.,BUITEMS | Abbas Z.,BUITEMS | Khan L.,BUITEMS
2016 2nd International Conference on Robotics and Artificial Intelligence, ICRAI 2016 | Year: 2016

Snake robots are redundant structures, that are able to traverse many unstructured environments unlike wheeled and legged mobile robots. This research presents a novel method of designing efficient movement control systems for snake robots using artificial neural networks, optimized by a genetic algorithm. This approach outperforms the common control methods in terms of diversity, using no a-priori knowledge about snake movements and ease of implementation. Research was conducted to design two gaits namely sidewinding and turning for the snake robot on a planer terrain in a 3D Physics simulation environment. The locomotion controllers obtained were evolved quickly for the two gaits and efficient desired behaviors were obtained. The proposed evolutionary method, introduced embodied intelligence in snake robot and the trained controllers can be employed for following a trajectory easily by a high level controller. © 2016 IEEE.


PubMed | BUITEMS, University of Cologne, University of Hamburg, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genome research | Year: 2016

The CRISPR/Cas technology enables targeted genome editing and the rapid generation of transgenic animal models for the study of human genetic disorders. Here we describe an autosomal recessive human disease in two unrelated families characterized by a split-foot defect, nail abnormalities of the hands, and hearing loss, due to mutations disrupting the SAM domain of the protein kinase ZAK. ZAK is a member of the MAPKKK family with no known role in limb development. We show that Zak is expressed in the developing limbs and that a CRISPR/Cas-mediated knockout of the two Zak isoforms is embryonically lethal in mice. In contrast, a deletion of the SAM domain induces a complex hindlimb defect associated with down-regulation of Trp63, a known split-hand/split-foot malformation disease gene. Our results identify ZAK as a key player in mammalian limb patterning and demonstrate the rapid utility of CRISPR/Cas genome editing to assign causality to human mutations in the mouse in <10 wk.


PubMed | University of Punjab, King Abdulaziz University, Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg and BUITEMS
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Hepatitis monthly | Year: 2015

The nonstructural protein NS4A of hepatitis C virus is composed of 54 amino acids. This small size protein has vital role in many cellular functions. The most important reported function is being a cofactor of viral enzymes serine protease and helicase.The objective of this study was to analyze the phylogenetic variation, its impact in terms of translation and any functional change in protein structure at primary 2D/3D structure using computational tools from Pakistani patients isolates.Patient sera infected with Hepatitis C virus, genotype 1A, were obtained from Molecular Diagnostics lab, CEMB, University of the Punjab Lahore by using BD Vacutainer collection tubes (Becton Dickenson).Phylogenetic analysis of the gene revealed that Pakistani 1a HCV strains are in the start of third cluster and there is a difference between inter Pakistani isolates at primary, secondary and tertiary levels.Mutations were present in the central domain of NS4A (amino acids 21 - 34).


PubMed | University of Balochistan, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, BUITEMS and Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology IBBt
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical and experimental dermatology | Year: 2015

Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is an autosomal recessive disorder of abnormal melanin formation, which results in hypopigmentation of skin, hair and eyes. OCA is classified into four types based on clinical and genetic findings. OCA1 is the most severe form of albinism, and is caused by mutations in the tyrosinase (TYR) gene, while OCA4 is caused due to mutations in SLC45A2.In total, 13 families with 3 members with OCA were enrolled. Family history was ascertained and pedigrees were drawn up. Blood samples were collected and processed for DNA extraction. Linkage analysis was performed by typing three short tandem repeat markers in candidate regions of TYR and SLC45A2. Sequence analysis was performed of all the coding exons and adjacent intronic sequences of both genes.Eight families showed linkage to OCA1 and one family showed linkage to OCA4. Four missense substitutions (p.Arg239Trp, p.Ser192Tyr, p.Ser44Arg and p.Arg77Gln) were identified in TYR in the families with OCA1 linkage, and another missense substitution (p.Gln272Lys) was identified in the family with OCA4 linkage. One of the identified missense substitution (p.Arg77Gln) in TYR was found in five different families, which had a common haplotype.We identified four missense substitutions in TYR and a single missense substitution in SLC45A2. One missense substitution (p.Arg77Gln) in TYR was found in five different families that originated from the same geographical area and displayed a common haplotype, suggesting a single origin that then spread to different geographical areas of Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.


PubMed | University of Toronto, BUITEMS, Islamia University of Bahawalpur, University of Waterloo and University of Gujrat
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of medical physics | Year: 2016

This study reviewed prostate volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans after prostate IMRT technique was replaced by VMAT in an institution. Characterizations of dosimetry and radiobiological variation in prostate were determined based on treatment plans of 40 prostate IMRT patients (planning target volume = 77.8-335 cm(3)) and 50 VMAT patients (planning target volume = 120-351 cm(3)) treated before and after 2013, respectively. Both IMRT and VMAT plans used the same dose-volume criteria in the inverse planning optimization. Dose-volume histogram, mean doses of target and normal tissues (rectum, bladder and femoral heads), dose-volume points (D99% of planning target volume; D30%, D50%, V30 Gy and V35 Gy of rectum and bladder; D5%, V14 Gy, V22 Gy of femoral heads), conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), gradient index (GI), prostate tumor control probability (TCP), and rectal normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) based on the Lyman-Burman-Kutcher algorithm were calculated for each IMRT and VMAT plan. From our results, VMAT plan was found better due to its higher (1.05%) CI, lower (0.83%) HI and (0.75%) GI than IMRT. Comparing doses in normal tissues between IMRT and VMAT, it was found that IMRT mostly delivered higher doses of about 1.05% to the normal tissues than VMAT. Prostate TCP and rectal NTCP were found increased (1%) for VMAT than IMRT. It is seen that VMAT technique can decrease the dose-volume evaluation criteria for the normal tissues. Based on our dosimetric and radiobiological results in treatment plans, it is concluded that our VMAT implementation could produce comparable or slightly better target coverage and normal tissue sparing with a faster treatment time in prostate radiotherapy.


Rasool M.,King Abdulaziz University | Malik A.,The University of Lahore | Qureshi M.S.,Allama Iqbal Medical College | Manan A.,The University of Lahore | And 7 more authors.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2014

Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by protein aggregates and inflammation as well as oxidative stress in the central nervous system (CNS). Multiple biological processes are linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as depletion or insufficient synthesis of neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, abnormal ubiquitination. Furthermore, damaging of blood brain barrier (BBB) in the CNS also leads to various CNS-related diseases. Even though synthetic drugs are used for the management of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, autism, and many other chronic illnesses, they are not without side effects. The attentions of researchers have been inclined towards the phytochemicals, many of which have minimal side effects. Phytochemicals are promising therapeutic agents because many phytochemicals have anti-inflammatory, antioxidative as well as anticholinesterase activities. Various drugs of either synthetic or natural origin applied in the treatment of brain disorders need to cross the BBB before they can be used. This paper covers various researches related to phytochemicals used in the management of neurodegenerative disorders. © 2014 Mahmood Rasool et al.


PubMed | National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering NIBGE, King Abdulaziz University, The University of Lahore, Bolan Medical Hospital and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Ovarian cancer is the 5th most common cause of deaths in the women among gynecological tumors. There are many growing evidences that stress and other behavioral factors may affect cancer progression and patient survival. The purpose of this study is to determine the key role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and cytokines in the aggregation and progression of ovarian cancer.Stress variables (MDA, AGEs, AOPPs, NO), profile of antioxidants (SOD, Catalase, Vitamin E & A, GSH, GRx, GPx) and inflammatory biomarkers (MMP-9, MMP-2, MMP-11, IL-1 and TNF-) were biochemically assessed from venous blood of fifty ovarian cancer patients and twenty healthy control subjects. The results of all parameters were analyzed statistically by independent sample t-test.The results of the study demonstrated that the levels of stress variables like MDA (3.381.12nmol/ml), AGEs (2.720.22 ng/ml), AOPPs (128.4827.23 ng/ml) and NO (58.718.67 ng/ml) were increased in the patients of ovarian cancer as compared to control individuals whereas the profile of antioxidants like SOD, Catalase, Vitamin E, Vitamin A, GSH and GRx were decreased in ovarian cancer patients (0.110.08 g/ml, 2.411.01mol/mol of protein, 0.220.04 g/ml, 45.849.07g/ml, 4.881.18g/ml, 5.331.26 mol/ml respectively). But the level of GPx antioxidant was increased in ovarian cancer patients (6.580.21mol/ml). Moreover the levels of MMP-9 (64.875.35 ng/ml), MMP-2 (75.8718.82 ng/ml) and MMP-11 (63.588.48 ng/ml) were elevated in the patients. Similarly, the levels of various cytokines TNF- and IL-1 were also increased in the patients of ovarian cancer (32.173.52 pg/ml and 7.040.85 pg/ml respectively).MMPs are commonly expressed in ovarian cancer which are potential extrapolative biomarkers and have a major role in metastasis. Due to oxidative stress, different cytokines are released by tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) that result in the cancer progression. Consequently, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are the valuable therapeutic approaches to complement conservative anticancer strategies.


Uddin F.,BUITEMS
Journal of Industrial Textiles | Year: 2016

An increasing number of flying hours requires an improved level of confidence in safety and comfort for crew staff, passengers, and valuables. Alternative or improved material utilization in interior furnishing and structure is perceived important in producing an aircraft. Fibrous material used in an aircraft may enhance the level of safety and the desired effects in producing the structural components. Aircraft accidents and loses to lives and valuable caused by fire are known in aviation history. Flammability in an aircraft as a leading cause or as a subcause may be prevented through an appropriate utilization of flame-retardant (FR) fibrous materials used in aircraft design and manufacturing and in interior furnishing. Improving the prevention of fire hazard through reduced flammability materials was a desired activity for achieving safer air travel. Important FR fibers (FR finished natural fibers and high-performance fibers including synthetic polyamides, carbon, and ceramic fibers), finishes (organophosphorus reagents), and fibrous structural components in aircraft are discussed. FR finishes including brominated FR with reference to recent environmental concerns are described. Standard testing of FR fibrous material based on the Federal Aviation Administration regulations are introduced for any flammability requirements. This study is particularly conducted to appreciate how fibrous materials are useful in improving the flame retardancy and any other performance factor including safety and reduced fuel consumption in an aircraft. © 2014, © The Author(s) 2014.


Siddiqui Q.,Donghua University | Abro Z.,BUITEMS | Yu C.,Donghua University
Textile Research Journal | Year: 2015

To produce an evener fiber assembly, it is important to understand fiber dynamic behavior during the drafting process. Drafting force and its variability is an alternative approach to understand the fiber’s velocity–friction characteristics, representing a combined effect of multiple fiber properties. In this study, online drafting force and its variability was measured with different break draft ratios and back roller gauges to analyze its effect on sliver short-term evenness. Drafting force variability well correlated with sliver evenness with correlation coefficient R2 = 0.81. The coefficient of variation (CV%) of drafting force was highest (2.3%) at low break draft 1.1–1.2, and then reduced gradually to its minimum value (1.5%) around a break draft of 1.6–1.7. The minimum variability of drafting force well corresponds with lower irregularity of sliver at certain break draft ratios. This indicates that a stable drafting force promises better fiber distribution along the sliver length. The variability of drafting force and sliver irregularity also increased as the back gauge increased from 43 to 51 mm. Furthermore, the impact of short fiber content on the drafting force was investigated at three back gauges. The increase in short fiber content gives higher magnitude of drafting force. Drafting force was also compared with the number of neps and change in fiber length in sliver for each break draft. Better nep opening and improved fiber lengths were also found around (1.6–1.7) break draft and follow the same trend of variability of drafting force as the break draft changed. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.


Khan H.U.,BUITEMS | Shafiq M.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Zakaullah M.,Quaid-i-Azam University
Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids | Year: 2013

The sheath dynamics is an important parameter in dense plasma focus. In this paper, the effect of preionization on sheath dynamics, pinching and its filamentary structure is studied by measuring the axial run-down velocity and its confinement time. A discharge is produced in a 3.3kJ pure He plasma. The Rogowski and high-voltage signals reveal the formation of an axisymmetric parabolic current sheath, high focusing amplitude during collapse phase with preionization source. The working pressure effect on sheath dynamics and spatial evolution is also studied. The enlarge and symmetric pinhole images with preionization support and conform with the results obtained. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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