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Kadela M.,Building Research Institute
Geotechnical Special Publication | Year: 2014

This paper presents the behavior of subsoil under cyclic load transmitted by pavement layers. The response of subsoil to cyclic load is recorded in situ by the observation system (sensors) installed on the testing ground prepared for this purpose, being a part of the test road to the complex of warehouses in Bierun, near Katowice, in Poland. A different behavior of the homogeneous subsoil under pavement is observed for different seasons of the year, when pavement construction works as a flexible structure in summer, and as a rigid plate in winter. Albeit the observed character of subsoil response is the same regardless of the applied load and area values, This response can be divided into: & zone of indirect action of the applied load; this zone extends to the depth of 1.0 m under the pavement,; zone of a small strain, extending to about 2.0 m. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Czarnecki L.,Building Research Institute | Woyciechowski P.,Warsaw University of Technology
Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences | Year: 2013

The paper presents an idea of predicting durability of concrete structures with steel reinforcement under conditions of chloride and carbonation corrosion risk. Mechanisms of destruction due to steel corrosion in such conditions are shown. The recently elaborated model of carbonation and general model of chloride diffusion have been discussed. An algorithm of the rest service life time prognosis has been shown and options of its main stages realization have been done. An example of durability prognosis for pre-stressed hollow-core floor slab with upper layer of concrete and epoxy-resin coating has been given. This example confirms the usefulness of the described prognosis method and demonstrates its helpfulness in a structure management according to the standards of EN 1504 series.

Sztarbala G.,Building Research Institute
Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences | Year: 2013

The aim of this paper is to present the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to the assessment of conditions inside construction works during a fire. The CFD method is now commonly used to support the design process of fire safety in construction works. This method is very useful at the preliminary stage of design because it is possible to check the internal environment during a fire and evaluate whether requirements of fire safety are met.

Czarnecki L.,Building Research Institute | Woyciechowski P.,Warsaw University of Technology
ACI Materials Journal | Year: 2012

A theoretical model for predicting the carbonation depth of concrete is presented. The proposed, experimentally determined model describes the carbonation depth as a function of the time of exposure, the water-binder ratio, and early-age curing conditions. The result is a new mathematical formulation of carbonation depth as a hyperbolic function of time, which assumes that the depth of the carbonation is ultimately limited as the concrete pores fill with carbonation products. Tests were carried out for 6 years in a natural atmospheric concentration of CO2 in an urban-industrial environment. The results showing the carbonation depth for concrete using different types of cement are used to derive equations to predict carbonation depth. It is expected that the resulting equations can be applied to the prediction of the concrete cover thickness for reinforcement in concrete structures. Copyright © 2012, American Concrete Institute. All rights reserved.

Czarnecki L.,Building Research Institute | Woyciechowski P.,Warsaw University of Technology
Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences | Year: 2015

The aim of the article is mathematical modelling of the carbonation process that has been based on results of research conducted both in accelerated and natural conditions. The article covers short characteristic of carbonation, its processes and effects. Also critical review of articles that concern carbonation mathematical models was included in the paper. Assuming the self-terminating nature of carbonation the hyperbolic model of carbonation was formulated. Such a model describes the carbonation progress as the process unlimited in time but with the restricted range in concrete depth that is limited by the value of a model asymptote. Presented results cover research on carbonation of concrete with a different water-cement ratio and different types of binders and duration times of early curing. Investigations have been conducted as accelerated (1% concentration of CO2) as well as in long-term exposures in natural conditions. The obtained results confirmed statistically that hyperbolic model is a well-founded approach when the modelling concrete carbonation process is concerned © 2015 Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Technical Sciences.

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