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Cory S.,Victoria University of Wellington | Donn M.,Victoria University of Wellington | Pollard A.,Building Research Association Of New Zealand

The New Zealand building design industry assumes various building model inputs for the consumption of energy through lighting and appliances. It also makes assumptions regarding when these energy consumers are considered to be "turned on". This paper aims to better inform industry energy modellers about the real load and operation of real commercial buildings in New Zealand when compared to New Zealand Standard energy efficiency requirements and assumptions. The paper presents a set of New Zealand relevant commercial building operation information. Typical operation information is provided for three commercial building types: (1) Office; (2) Retail; and (3) Mixed/Other. The information provides low, typical, and high installed building load and operation pattern scenarios for the three building types. The typical data presented in this paper is significantly different to the load requirement and operation modelling assumptions presented in the New Zealand Building code. The results established in this paper are informed by data gathered in the Building Research Association of New Zealand (BRANZ) Building Energy End-Use Study (BEES). The purpose of BEES is to increase knowledge on energy use patterns for the entire New Zealand building stock. The intention of this paper is to disseminate the established knowledge that will eventually update the assumptions used in New Zealand commercial energy models. © 2015 by the authors. Source

Yeoh D.,University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia | Fragiacomo M.,University of Sassari | Carradine D.,Building Research Association Of New Zealand
Engineering Structures

In recent years, timber-concrete composite systems have become more widely used as a new construction technique for buildings and bridges. The main advantage is that the compressive strength of concrete is exploited through the use of composite action while timber beams are able to resist the tensile stresses. The level of composite action, which can be achieved by the system, is dependent on the type of shear connector used. There is a lack of knowledge, however, on the performance of these types of connections when subjected to cyclic loading, which is typical for bridges. Testing was performed in the Structures Laboratory of the University of Canterbury to analyse the fatigue behaviour of two types of timber-concrete connections via push-out specimens, and two beam specimens representing strips of composite floor with the same connection types. The two types of connection investigated were: (i) a rectangular notch connection reinforced with a coach screw (also known as lag screw); and (ii) a connection with toothed metal plates punched into laminated veneer lumber (LVL). The stiffness of the connection was monitored throughout the cyclic loading along with the total amount of slip occurring between the concrete and timber. After the application of 2. million cycles, the push-out and beam specimens were loaded to failure in order to quantify their maximum strength. The strength of the rectangular notched connection after cyclic loading was 0.95 times of the one without cyclic loading, while for the metal plate connection was 0.60 times. For the metal plate connection, a continuous increase in slip was observed with increased cycles possibly due to accumulated damage from repeated loading. The rectangular notch connection displayed more resistance to changes in slip, strength and stiffness than the metal plate connection. No obvious loss of stiffness was observed in the rectangular notch connected floor beams after 2. million cycles, and when tested to failure the stiffness was very similar to the same floor beam that had not been cyclically loaded. The floor beam with metal plate connections did not perform well and failed after 350,000. cycles. The loss of strength, stiffness and composite action in this floor beam compared to the one without cyclic loading was significant. In this respect, the rectangular notch connection system is recommended for use in bridge design as opposed to metal plate connections. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Keall M.D.,University of Otago | Pierse N.,University of Otago | Howden-Chapman P.,University of Otago | Cunningham C.,Massey University | And 2 more authors.
The Lancet

Background Despite the considerable injury burden attributable to falls at home among the general population, few effective safety interventions have been identified. We tested the safety benefits of home modifications, including handrails for outside steps and internal stairs, grab rails for bathrooms, outside lighting, edging for outside steps, and slip-resistant surfacing for outside areas such as decks and porches. Methods We did a single-blind, cluster-randomised controlled trial of households from the Taranaki region of New Zealand. To be eligible, participants had to live in an owner-occupied dwelling constructed before 1980 and at least one member of every household had to be in receipt of state benefits or subsidies. We randomly assigned households by electronic coin toss to either immediate home modifications (treatment group) or a 3-year wait before modifications (control group). Household members in the treatment group could not be masked to their assigned status because modifications were made to their homes. The primary outcome was the rate of falls at home per person per year that needed medical treatment, which we derived from administrative data for insurance claims. Coders who were unaware of the random allocation analysed text descriptions of injuries and coded injuries as all falls and injuries most likely to be affected by the home modifications tested. To account for clustering at the household level, we analysed all injuries from falls at home per person-year with a negative binomial generalised linear model with generalised estimating equations. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, number ACTRN12609000779279. Findings Of 842 households recruited, 436 (n=950 individual occupants) were randomly assigned to the treatment group and 406 (n=898 occupants) were allocated to the control group. After a median observation period of 1148 days (IQR 1085-1263), the crude rate of fall injuries per person per year was 0·061 in the treatment group and 0·072 in the control group (relative rate 0·86, 95% CI 0·66-1·12). The crude rate of injuries specific to the intervention per person per year was 0·018 in the treatment group and 0·028 in the control group (0·66, 0·43-1·00). A 26% reduction in the rate of injuries caused by falls at home per year exposed to the intervention was estimated in people allocated to the treatment group compared with those assigned to the control group, after adjustment for age, previous falls, sex, and ethnic origin (relative rate 0·74, 95% CI 0·58-0·94). Injuries specific to the home-modification intervention were cut by 39% per year exposed (0·61, 0·41-0·91). Interpretation Our findings suggest that low-cost home modifications and repairs can be a means to reduce injury in the general population. Further research is needed to identify the effectiveness of particular modifications from the package tested. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Keall M.,University of Otago | Baker M.G.,University of Otago | Howden-Chapman P.,University of Otago | Cunningham M.,Building Research Association Of New Zealand | Ormandy D.,University of Warwick
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health

Background The adverse health and environmental effects of poorhousing quality are well established. A central requirement for evidence-based policies and programmes to improve housing standards is avalid, reliable and practical way of measuring housing quality that is supported by policy agencies, the housing sector, researchers andthe public. Methods This paper provides guidance on the development of housing quality-assessment tools that link practical measures of housing conditions to their effects on health, safety and sustainability, with particular reference to tools developed in New ZealandandEngland. Results The authors describe how information on housingquality can support individuals, agencies and the private sector to makeworthwhile improvements to the health, safety and sustainability of housing. The information gathered and the resultant tools developed should be guided by the multiple purposes and end users of thisinformation. Other important issues outlined include deciding on thescope, detailed content, practical administration issues and how theinformation will be analysed and summarised for its intended end users. There are likely to be considerable benefits from increased international collaboration and standardisation of approaches to measuring housing hazards. At the same time, these assessment approaches need toconsider local factors such as climate, geography, culture, predominating building practices, important housing-related health issues and existing building codes. Conclusions An effective housing quality-assessment tool has a central role in supporting improvements to housing. The issues discussed in this paper are designed to motivate and assist the development of such tools. Source

Buchanan A.,University of Canterbury | Carradine D.,University of Canterbury | Beattie G.,Building Research Association Of New Zealand | Morris H.,University of Auckland
Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering

The earthquake on 22 February 2011 was very close to Christchurch city, generating very high level ground excitations that caused severe geotechnical effects and widespread structural damage. This paper outlines the wide range of damage to houses resulting from liquefaction, lateral spreading, rockfall, and horizontal and vertical ground accelerations. The response of typical forms of house construction and structural components are discussed, with many different types of damage described. The majority of houses in the Christchurch region are one or two storey light timber frame buildings. This type of construction has performed extremely well for life safety, but thousands of houses have some degree of structural or non-structural damage. The New Zealand Building Code needs to be reviewed in several areas, especially the requirements for foundations and reinforced concrete floors. Source

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