Building and Urban Research Institute

Gyeonggi Do, South Korea

Building and Urban Research Institute

Gyeonggi Do, South Korea
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Kim H.,Building and Urban Research Institute | Park S.,Building and Urban Research Institute | Lee S.,Building and Urban Research Institute
Materials | Year: 2016

There have been frequent cases of civil complaints and disputes in relation to floor impact noises over the years. To solve these issues, a substantial amount of sound resilient material is installed between the concrete slab and the foamed concrete during construction. A new place-type resilient material is made from cement, silica powder, sodium sulfate, expanded-polystyrene, anhydrite, fly ash, and acrylic polymer emulsion resin. Its physical characteristics such as density, compressive strength, dynamic stiffness, and remanent strain are analyzed to assess the acoustic performance of the material. The experimental results showed the density and the dynamic stiffness of the proposed resilient material is increased with proportional to the use of cement and silica powder due to the high contents of the raw materials. The remanent strain, related to the serviceability of a structure, is found to be inversely proportional to the density and strength. The amount of reduction in the heavyweight impact noise is significant in a material with high density, high strength, and low remanent strain. Finally, specimen no. R4, having the reduction level of 3 dB for impact ball and 1 dB for bang machine in the single number quantity level, respectively, is the best product to obtain overall acoustic performance.


Jang H.-J.,Korea Testing Laboratory | Song T.-S.,Korea Testing Laboratory | Song T.-H.,Building and Urban Research Institute
2017 Asia-Pacific International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, APEMC 2017 | Year: 2017

Industry cable is used with hundreds of meters or several kilometers. If there is any problem in cable, kind of disconnection or defect, it is difficult to detect any defective part on entire cable. To resolve this inconvenience, the cable measurement method of detecting defects or damages on cable by moving only small testing area was studied. The proposed method needs an input signal with 30 MHz CW from signal generator, small loop probe and housing box with inside shielded pipe. It will continuously detect the leakage signal in defected or damaged part of the cable. This paper shows the effective result to find a problematic point on cable. © 2017 IEEE.


Lim W.-Y.,Wonkwang University | Lee D.,Antalya International University | You Y.-C.,Building and Urban Research Institute
Journal of Constructional Steel Research | Year: 2017

Experimental study on exposed steel column-base plate connections subjected to both axial and lateral loadings is quite limited. Therefore, based on the intensive field investigation, nine specimens were tested to appraise the seismic performance of various column-base plate strong-axis connections of small-size steel structures in this study. The main parameters were the thickness of base plates, the embedment length of anchor bolts, and the presence of hook and rib plates. Flexural strength, deformation capacity, energy dissipation, and stiffness of the test specimens were investigated. Based on the test results, the hysteretic behaviour of exposed column-base plate strong-axis connections was significantly influenced by the base plate thickness as well as the number and embedment length of anchor bolts. However, the effect of rib plates on the flexural performance of column-base plate connections was negligible. The flexural stiffness of the specimens was approximately 15% of the flexural stiffness by the New Zealand Standard with the assumption that the supports were fixed. It was found that although column-base plate strong-axis connections were properly designed in accordance with design guides, the flexural performance of the connections could be unreliable without sufficient bond capacity between concrete and anchor bolts. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Park S.H.,University of Liverpool | Lee P.J.,University of Liverpool | Yang K.S.,Building and Urban Research Institute
Acta Acustica united with Acustica | Year: 2016

This study used grounded theory to understand how apartment building residents perceive and react to floor impact noise from upstairs. In-depth interviews with a heterogeneous group of 14 participants were conducted, and the acquired data were analysed to develop a conceptual model for describing perception and reaction to floor impact noise. It was found that floor impact noise had diverse sources, with the majority originating from footsteps. The participants negatively perceived the noise as annoying and disturbing, and sleep disturbance was reported the most frequently. Cognitive and avoidant coping strategies were initially adopted, and complaints were only thereafter registered if the noise persisted. It was also observed that exposure to the noise led to self-reported health problems and concerns. The developed conceptual model highlights potential intervention measures for controlling noise perception and reactions to floor impact noise. © S. Hirzel Verlag • EAA.


This study developed and tested a home energy audit methodology that can be operated easily and quickly by novices in the field of building physics, mechanical systems, and building energy simulations such as homeowners. The home energy audit methodology was composed of three procedures as follows: an initial simulation procedure that can run the simulation easily, a calibration procedure that calibrates the initial simulation using a year of monthly utility bills, and a procedure to determine energy and cost efficient measures. In the previous study, the procedure for calibrating a residential simulation was developed, and in another study, the procedure was applied to an existing single-family house and energy and cost efficient measures were determined. In the previous studies, the procedures were validated in one case-study, single-family house in Texas, USA. In this paper, the overall procedure for the home energy audit methodology is presented and verified by two additional single-family houses in two different locations in Texas. In a similar fashion as the application to the first house, the most suitable retrofit measures for both of the new houses were determined according to their building and systems conditions, and corresponding cost savings. © 2016, Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Kim T.H.,Building and Urban Research Institute | Chae C.U.,Building and Urban Research Institute
Sustainability (Switzerland) | Year: 2016

Concrete is a major material used in the construction industry that emits a large amount of substances with environmental impacts during its life cycle. Accordingly, technologies for the reduction in and assessment of the environmental impact of concrete from the perspective of a life cycle assessment (LCA) must be developed. At present, the studies on LCA in relation to greenhouse gas emission from concrete are being carried out globally as a countermeasure against climate change. However, the studies on the impact of the substances emitted in the concrete production process on acidification and eutrophication are insufficient. As such, assessing only a single category of environmental impact may cause a misunderstanding about the environmental friendliness of concrete. The substances emitted in the concrete production process have an impact not only on global warming but also on acidification and eutrophication. Acidification and eutrophication are the main causes of air pollution, forest destruction, red tide phenomena, and deterioration of reinforced concrete structures. For this reason, the main substances among those emitted in the concrete production process that have an impact on acidification and eutrophication were deduced. In addition, an LCA technique through which to determine the major emissions from concrete was proposed and a case analysis was carried out. The substances among those emitted in the concrete production process that are related to eutrophication were deduced to be NOx, NH3, NH4 +, COD, NO3 -, and PO4 3-. The substances among those emitted in the concrete production process that are related to acidification, were found to be NOx, SO2, H2S, and H2SO4. The materials and energy sources among those input into the concrete production process, which have the biggest impact on acidification and eutrophication, were found to be coarse aggregate and fine aggregate. © 2016 by the authors.


Cho S.-H.,Building and Urban Research Institute | Chae C.-U.,Building and Urban Research Institute
Sustainability (Switzerland) | Year: 2016

There have been much interest and many efforts to control global warming and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the world. Recently, the Republic of Korea has also increased its GHG reduction goal and searched for an implementation plan. In buildings, for example, there have been technology developments and deployment policies to reduce GHG emissions from a life cycle perspective, covering construction materials, building construction, use of buildings and waste disposal. In particular, Korea's Green Standard for Energy and Environmental Design is a certification of environmentally-friendly buildings for their energy saving and reduction of environmental pollution throughout their lives. In fact, the demand and adoption of the certification are rising every year. In construction materials and buildings, as a result, an environmentally-friendly aspect has become crucial. The importance of construction material and building development technologies that can reduce environmental load by diminishing GHG emissions in buildings has emerged. Moreover, there has been a rising necessity to verify the GHG reduction effects of buildings. To assess the reduction of carbon emissions in the buildings built with low-carbon construction technologies and materials, therefore, this study estimated life cycle carbon emissions in reference buildings in which general construction materials are used and in low-carbon buildings. For this, the carbon emissions and their reduction from construction materials (especially concrete) between conventional products and low-carbon materials were estimated, using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). After estimating carbon emissions from a building life cycle perspective, their reduction in low-carbon buildings compared to the reference buildings was reviewed. The results found that compared to conventional buildings, low-carbon buildings revealed a 25% decrease in carbon emissions in terms of the reduction of Life Cycle CO2 (LCCO2) per unit area. If diverse production technologies and sales routes are further developed for low-carbon construction materials, carbon emission reduction effects would considerably increase. © 2016 by the authors.


Kim T.,Building and Urban Research Institute | Chae C.U.,Building and Urban Research Institute
Sustainability (Switzerland) | Year: 2016

To comply with recent international trends and initiatives, and in order to help achieve sustainable development, Korea has established a greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction target of 37% (851million tons) of the business as usual (BAU) rate by 2030. Regarding environmentally-oriented standards such as the IGCC (International Green Construction Code), there are also rising demands for the assessment on CO2 emissions during the life cycle in accordance with ISO (International Standardization Organization's Standard) 14040. At present, precast concrete (PC) engineering-related studies primarily cover structural and construction aspects, including improvement of structural performance in the joint, introduction of pre-stressed concrete and development of half PC. In the manufacture of PC, steam curing is mostly used for the early-strength development of concrete. In steam curing, a large amount of CO2 is produced, causing an environmental problem. Therefore, this study proposes a method to assess CO2 emissions (including absorption) throughout the PC life cycle by using a life cycle assessment (LCA) method. Using the proposed assessment method, CO2 emissions during the life cycle of a precast concrete girder (PCG) were assessed. In addition, CO2 absorption was assessed against a PCG using conventional carbonation and CO2 absorption-related models. As a result, the CO2 emissions throughout the life cycle of the PCG were 1365.6 (kg-CO2/1 PCG). The CO2 emissions during the production of raw materials among the CO2 emissions throughout the life cycle of the PCG were 1390 (kg-CO2/1 PCG), accounting for a high portion to total CO2 emissions (nearly 90%). In contrast, the transportation and manufacture stages were 1% and 10%, respectively, having little effect on total CO2 emissions. Among the use of the PCG, CO2 absorption was mostly decided by the CO2 diffusion coefficient and the amount of CO2 absorption by cement paste. The CO2 absorption by carbonation throughout the service life of the PC was about 11% of the total CO2 emissions, which is about 16% of CO2 emissions from ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete. © 2016 by the authors.


Kim T.H.,Building and Urban Research Institute
Sustainability (Switzerland) | Year: 2016

Studies which reduce cement usage, develop an alternative by partial replacement of cement with blast-furnace slag, fly ash, or such industrial byproducts, and evaluate the environmental load and economic value of concrete mixed with such are in high demand. In this study, A-BFS (Activator Blast Furnace Slag), which is mixed with an activator in order to induce early-age strength manifestation of BFS mixed concrete was used to execute a physical property evaluation of concrete. This study first conducted physical property tests for compression strength of concrete that partially replaced OPC (ordinary Portland cement) with A-BFS and executed a comparison/analysis with 100% OPC. It was thought that if concrete early strength is manifested through this process when applied to RC (Reinforced Concrete) building, at most a three to four day construction cycle would be possible, according to which the economic value of the construction period reduction was evaluated. For this evaluation, general apartment houses (Case 1) were taken as the evaluation subject, and for comparison, Cases 2, 3, and 4 were set up by the mix ratio of A-BFS, and the economic value evaluation range was established. As a result, it was found that Case 2 had no change from Case 1, while Case 3 saved about 106,654,762 KRW (Korea Won) and Case 4 saved about 159,982,143 KRW. © 2016 by the authors.


Jeong Y.-S.,Building and Urban Research Institute | Jung H.-K.,Building and Urban Research Institute
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2015

The use of the resilient materials in the radiant floor heating systems of reinforced concrete floor in apartment housing is closely related to the reduction of the floor impact sound and the heating energy loss. This study examined the thermal conductivity of expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam used for the resilient material in South Korea and analysed the thermal transfer of reinforced concrete floor structure according to the thermal conductivity of the resilient materials. 82 EPS specimens were used to measure the thermal conductivity. The measured apparent density of EPS resilient materials ranged between 9.5 and 63.0 kg/m3, and the thermal conductivity ranged between 0.030 and 0.046 W/(m·K). As the density of resilient materials made of expanded polystyrene foam increases, the thermal conductivity tends to proportionately decrease. To set up reasonable thermal insulation requirements for radiant heating floor systems, the thermal properties of floor structure according to thermal insulation materials must be determined. Heat transfer simulations were performed to analyze the surface temperature, heat loss, and heat flow of floor structure with radiant heating system. As the thermal conductivity of EPS resilient material increased 1.6 times, the heat loss was of 3.4% increase. © 2015 Young-Sun Jeong and Hae-Kwon Jung.

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