Angels Camp, WA, United States
Angels Camp, WA, United States

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Eninger R.M.,Air Force Institute of Technology | Johnson R.L.,Building
Annals of Occupational Hygiene | Year: 2015

Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) technologies are rapidly developing, lowering cost, and technology barriers for their use in numerous applications. This review and commentary summarizes relevant literature in allied fields and evaluates potential application and utility of UAS technology in the discipline of occupational hygiene. Disciplines closely related to occupational hygiene are moving to investigate potential uses-and in some cases-already employing this technology for research or commercial purposes. The literature was reviewed to formulate a cross-sectional picture of how UAS technology is being used in these closely allied disciplines which could inform or guide potential use in occupational hygiene. Discussed are UAS applications in environmental monitoring, emergency response, epidemiology, safety, and process optimization. A rapidly developing state of the art indicates that there is potential utility for this technology in occupational hygiene. Benefits may include cost savings, time savings, and averting hazardous environments via remote sensing. The occupational hygiene community can look to allied fields to garner lessons and possible applications to their own practice. © 2015 Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

Echlin M.P.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Echlin M.P.,University of Michigan | Husseini N.S.,2477 Randall Laboratory | Nees J.A.,Center for Ultrafast Optical Science | Pollock T.M.,Building
Advanced Materials | Year: 2011

A new tomography technique for image 3D nm-scale material features in mm3 volumes has been developed. The technique employs a femtosecond laser for layer-by-layer material removal at rates 4-5 orders of magnitude faster than comparable serial sectioning techniques. The technique can be applied to a wide range of multiphase materia ls and an example of its application for imaging of TiN particles inhomogeneously dispersed in a metallic matrix is given. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Simon K.C.,Building | Simon K.C.,Harvard University | Eberly S.,Harvard University | Gao X.,Building | And 9 more authors.
Annals of Neurology | Year: 2014

Results: Serum urate concentrations were 0.69mg/dl lower among individuals with ≥4 SLC2A9 minor alleles as compared to those with ≤2 (p = 0.0002). The hazard ratio (HR) for progression to disability requiring dopaminergic treatment increased with increasing SLC2A9 score (HR 5 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5 1.00-1.35, p = 0.056). In a comparative analysis, the HR was 1.27 (95% CI 5 1.00-1.61, p = 0.0497) for a 0.5mg/dl genetically conferred decrease in serum urate, and 1.05 (95% CI 5 1.01-1.10, p = 0.0133) for a 0.5mg/dl decrease in measured serum urate. No associations were found between polymorphisms in other genes associated with urate that do not affect serum urate and PD progression.Interpretation: This Mendelian randomization analysis adds to the evidence of a causal protective effect of high urate levels.Objective: Higher serum urate concentrations predict more favorable prognosis in individuals with Parkinson disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to test the causality of this association using a Mendelian randomization approach.Methods: The study was conducted among participants in DATATOP and PRECEPT, 2 randomized trials among patients with early PD. The 808 patients with available DNA were genotyped for 3 SLC2A9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that identify an allele associated with lower urate concentrations, and for selected SNPs in other genes encoding urate transporters that have modest or no effect on serum urate levels. An SLC2A9 score was created based on the total number of minor alleles at the 3 SLC2A9 loci. Primary outcome was disability requiring dopaminergic treatment. © 2014 American Neurological Association.

Ramana A.S.V.,Bhabha Atomic Research Center | Menon S.V.G.,Building
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2013

An approach to the coupling-parameter expansion in the liquid state theory of simple fluids is presented by combining the ideas of thermodynamic perturbation theory and integral equation theories. This hybrid scheme avoids the problems of the latter in the two phase region. A method to compute the perturbation series to any arbitrary order is developed and applied to square well fluids. Apart from the Helmholtz free energy, the method also gives the radial distribution function and the direct correlation function of the perturbed system. The theory is applied for square well fluids of variable ranges and compared with simulation data. While the convergence of perturbation series and the overall performance of the theory is good, improvements are needed for potentials with shorter ranges. Possible directions for further developments in the coupling-parameter expansion are indicated. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Wood N.,Western Geographic Science Center | Jones J.,Western Geographic Science Center | Schelling J.,Building | Schmidtlein M.,California State University, Sacramento
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction | Year: 2014

Tsunami vertical-evacuation (TVE) refuges can be effective risk-reduction options for coastal communities with local tsunami threats but no accessible high ground for evacuations. Deciding where to locate TVE refuges is a complex risk-management question, given the potential for conflicting stakeholder priorities and multiple, suitable sites. We use the coastal community of Ocean Shores (Washington, USA) and the local tsunami threat posed by Cascadia subduction zone earthquakes as a case study to explore the use of geospatial, multi-criteria decision analysis for framing the locational problem of TVE siting. We demonstrate a mixed-methods approach that uses potential TVE sites identified at community workshops, geospatial analysis to model changes in pedestrian evacuation times for TVE options, and statistical analysis to develop metrics for comparing population tradeoffs and to examine influences in decision making. Results demonstrate that no one TVE site can save all at-risk individuals in the community and each site provides varying benefits to residents, employees, customers at local stores, tourists at public venues, children at schools, and other vulnerable populations. The benefit of some proposed sites varies depending on whether or not nearby bridges will be functioning after the preceding earthquake. Relative rankings of the TVE sites are fairly stable under various criteria-weighting scenarios but do vary considerably when comparing strategies to exclusively protect tourists or residents. The proposed geospatial framework can serve as an analytical foundation for future TVE siting discussions. © 2014.

Seger B.,Building | Tilley D.S.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Pedersen T.,Technical University of Denmark | Vesborg P.C.K.,Building | And 3 more authors.
RSC Advances | Year: 2013

The semiconducting materials used for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting must withstand the corrosive nature of the aqueous electrolyte over long time scales in order to be a viable option for large scale solar energy conversion. Here we demonstrate that atomic layer deposited titanium dioxide (TiO2) overlayers on silicon-based photocathodes generate extremely stable electrodes. These electrodes can produce an onset potential of +0.510 V vs. RHE and a hydrogen evolution saturation current of 22 mA cm-2 using the red part of the AM1.5 solar spectrum (λ > 635 nm, 38.6 mW cm-2). A PEC chronoamperometry experiment was carried out for 2 weeks under constant illumination at +0.300 V vs. RHE with negligible degradation (<5%). Further testing showed slight degradation, but the re-addition of catalyst recovered the activity. These results show that properly processed TiO2 overlayers may have the potential to be stable for the long time frames that will be necessary for commercial devices. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Seger B.,Building | Tilley S.D.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Pedersen T.,Technical University of Denmark | Vesborg P.C.K.,Building | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2013

The present work demonstrates that tuning the donor density of protective TiO2 layers on a photocathode has dramatic consequences for electronic conduction through TiO2 with implications for the stabilization of oxidation-sensitive catalysts on the surface. Vacuum annealing at 400 °C for 1 hour of atomic layer deposited TiO2 increased the donor density from an as-deposited value of 1.3 × 1019 cm -3 to 2.2 × 1020 cm-3 following the annealing step. Using an Fe(ii)/Fe(iii) redox couple it was shown that the lower dopant density only allows electron transfer through TiO2 under conditions of weak band bending. However it was shown that increasing the dopant density to 2.2 × 1020 cm-3 allows tunneling through the surface region of TiO2 to occur at significant band bending. An important implication of this result is that the less doped material is unsuitable for electron transfer across the TiO2/electrolyte interface if the potential is significantly more anodic than the TiO2 conduction band due to moderate to large band bending. This means that the lesser doped TiO2 can be used to prevent the inadvertent oxidation of sensitive species on the surface (e.g. H2 evolution catalysts) as long as the redox potential of the material is significantly more anodic than the TiO2 conduction band. Conversely, for situations where an oxidative process on the surface is desired, highly doped TiO2 may be used to enable current flow via tunneling. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Inzerillo L.,building
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

A great opportunity has permitted to carry out a cultural, historical, architectural and social research with great impact factor on the international cultural interest. We are talking about the realization of a museum whose the main theme is the visit and the discovery of a monument of great prestige: the monumental building the Steri in Palermo. The museum is divided into sub themes including the one above all, that has aroused the international interest so much that it has been presented the instance to include the museum in the cultural heritage of UNESCO. It is the realization of a museum path that regards the cells of the Inquisition, which are located just inside of some buildings of the monumental building. The project, as a whole, is faced, in a total view, between the various competences implicated: historic, chemic, architectonic, topographic, drawing, representation, virtual communication, informatics. The birth of the museum will be a sum of the results of all these disciplines involved. Methodology, implementation, fruition, virtual museum, goals, 2D graphic restitution, effects on the cultural heritage and landscape environmental, augmented reality, Surveying 2D and 3D, hi-touch screen, Photogrammetric survey, Photographic survey, representation, drawing 3D and more than this has been dealt with this research. © 2013 SPIE-IS&T.

Vahey M.D.,Building | Voldman J.,Building
Lab on a Chip - Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology | Year: 2011

Colloidal particles placed in an energy landscape interact with each other, giving rise to complex dynamic behavior that affects the ability to process and manipulate suspensions of these particles. Propagating across scales ranging from the local behavior of 10's of particles to non-local behavior encompassing >106 particles, these particle interactions are pervasive and challenging to describe quantitatively, especially in the confined environments typical of microfluidic devices. To better understand the effects of particle interactions in this context, we have performed experiments and simulations involving a simple microfluidic device in which hydrodynamic and electrostatic forces are leveraged to concentrate and separate particle mixtures. These investigations reveal the mechanisms underlying the dynamic patterns formed by micron-scale particles as they impinge on a dielectrophoretic force barrier: their tendency to aggregate and recirculate under constant operating conditions, and to reorganize when the operating conditions are changed. The emergent behaviors of these ensembles of interacting particles exhibit features of dynamical frustration and cooperativity that suggest non-intuitive strategies for concentrating and sorting suspensions. Finally, we present a simple analytic model based on hydrodynamic coupling that captures important features of strongly interacting particle suspensions. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Brix J.,Building | Jensen P.A.,Building | Jensen A.D.,Building
Fuel | Year: 2010

The aim of the present investigation is to examine differences between O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres during devolatilization and char conversion of a bituminous coal at conditions covering temperatures between 1173 K and 1673 K and inlet oxygen concentrations between 5 and 28 vol.%. The experiments have been carried out in an electrically heated entrained flow reactor that is designed to simulate the conditions in a suspension fired boiler. Coal devolatilized in N2 and CO2 atmospheres provided similar results regarding char morphology, char N 2-BET surface area and volatile yield. This strongly indicates that a shift from air to oxy-fuel combustion does not influence the devolatilization process significantly. Char combustion experiments yielded similar char conversion profiles when N2 was replaced with CO2 under conditions where combustion was primarily controlled by chemical kinetics. When char was burned at 1573 K and 1673 K a faster conversion was found in N 2 suggesting that the lower molecular diffusion coefficient of O 2 in CO2 lowers the char conversion rate when external mass transfer influences combustion. The reaction of char with CO2 was not observed to have an influence on char conversion rates at the applied experimental conditions. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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