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North Bethesda, MD, United States

Wood N.,Western Geographic Science Center | Jones J.,Western Geographic Science Center | Schelling J.,Building | Schmidtlein M.,California State University, Sacramento
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction | Year: 2014

Tsunami vertical-evacuation (TVE) refuges can be effective risk-reduction options for coastal communities with local tsunami threats but no accessible high ground for evacuations. Deciding where to locate TVE refuges is a complex risk-management question, given the potential for conflicting stakeholder priorities and multiple, suitable sites. We use the coastal community of Ocean Shores (Washington, USA) and the local tsunami threat posed by Cascadia subduction zone earthquakes as a case study to explore the use of geospatial, multi-criteria decision analysis for framing the locational problem of TVE siting. We demonstrate a mixed-methods approach that uses potential TVE sites identified at community workshops, geospatial analysis to model changes in pedestrian evacuation times for TVE options, and statistical analysis to develop metrics for comparing population tradeoffs and to examine influences in decision making. Results demonstrate that no one TVE site can save all at-risk individuals in the community and each site provides varying benefits to residents, employees, customers at local stores, tourists at public venues, children at schools, and other vulnerable populations. The benefit of some proposed sites varies depending on whether or not nearby bridges will be functioning after the preceding earthquake. Relative rankings of the TVE sites are fairly stable under various criteria-weighting scenarios but do vary considerably when comparing strategies to exclusively protect tourists or residents. The proposed geospatial framework can serve as an analytical foundation for future TVE siting discussions. © 2014.

Lee Y.-S.,Building | Hodoscek M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Hodoscek M.,Slovenian National Institute of Chemistry | Chun J.-H.,Molecular Imaging Branch | Pike V.W.,Molecular Imaging Branch
Chemistry - A European Journal | Year: 2010

Diaryliodonium salts allow the efficient incorporation of cyclotronproduced [18F]fluoride ions into electron-rich and electron-deficient arenes to provide potential radiotracers for molecular imaging in vivo with positron emission tomography (PET). This process (ArI+Ar′ + 18F-→Ar18F + Ar′I) is still not well understood mechanistically. To better understand this and similar reactions, it would be valuable to understand the structures of diaryliodonium salts in organic media, where the reactions are typically conducted. In this endeavor, the X-ray structure of a representative iodonium salt, 2-methylphenyl(2′- methoxyphenyl)iodonium chloride (1), was determined. Our X-ray structure analysis showed 1 to have the conformational M-P dimer as the unit cell with hypervalent iodine as a stereogenic center in each conformer. With the ab initio replica path method we constructed the inversion path between the two enantiomers of 1, thereby revealing two additional pairs of enantiomers that are likely to undergo fast interconversion in solution. Also LC-MS of 1 showed the presence of dimeric and tetrameric anion-bridged clusters in weak organic solution. This observation is consistent with the energetics of 1, both as monomeric and dimeric forms in MeCN, calculated at the B3LYP/DGDZVP level. These evidences of the existence of dimeric and higher order clusters of 1 in solution are relevant to achieve a deeper general understanding of the mechanism and outcome of reactions of diaryliodonium salts in organic media with nucleophiles, such as the [18F]fluoride ion. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Inzerillo L.,Building
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

A great opportunity has permitted to carry out a cultural, historical, architectural and social research with great impact factor on the international cultural interest. We are talking about the realization of a museum whose the main theme is the visit and the discovery of a monument of great prestige: the monumental building the Steri in Palermo. The museum is divided into sub themes including the one above all, that has aroused the international interest so much that it has been presented the instance to include the museum in the cultural heritage of UNESCO. It is the realization of a museum path that regards the cells of the Inquisition, which are located just inside of some buildings of the monumental building. The project, as a whole, is faced, in a total view, between the various competences implicated: historic, chemic, architectonic, topographic, drawing, representation, virtual communication, informatics. The birth of the museum will be a sum of the results of all these disciplines involved. Methodology, implementation, fruition, virtual museum, goals, 2D graphic restitution, effects on the cultural heritage and landscape environmental, augmented reality, Surveying 2D and 3D, hi-touch screen, Photogrammetric survey, Photographic survey, representation, drawing 3D and more than this has been dealt with this research. © 2013 SPIE-IS&T.

Eninger R.M.,Air Force Institute of Technology | Johnson R.L.,Building
Annals of Occupational Hygiene | Year: 2015

Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) technologies are rapidly developing, lowering cost, and technology barriers for their use in numerous applications. This review and commentary summarizes relevant literature in allied fields and evaluates potential application and utility of UAS technology in the discipline of occupational hygiene. Disciplines closely related to occupational hygiene are moving to investigate potential uses-and in some cases-already employing this technology for research or commercial purposes. The literature was reviewed to formulate a cross-sectional picture of how UAS technology is being used in these closely allied disciplines which could inform or guide potential use in occupational hygiene. Discussed are UAS applications in environmental monitoring, emergency response, epidemiology, safety, and process optimization. A rapidly developing state of the art indicates that there is potential utility for this technology in occupational hygiene. Benefits may include cost savings, time savings, and averting hazardous environments via remote sensing. The occupational hygiene community can look to allied fields to garner lessons and possible applications to their own practice. © 2015 Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

Echlin M.P.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Echlin M.P.,University of Michigan | Husseini N.S.,2477 Randall Laboratory | Nees J.A.,Center for Ultrafast Optical Science | Pollock T.M.,Building
Advanced Materials | Year: 2011

A new tomography technique for image 3D nm-scale material features in mm3 volumes has been developed. The technique employs a femtosecond laser for layer-by-layer material removal at rates 4-5 orders of magnitude faster than comparable serial sectioning techniques. The technique can be applied to a wide range of multiphase materia ls and an example of its application for imaging of TiN particles inhomogeneously dispersed in a metallic matrix is given. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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