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Song D.,Building 15 | Zou J.,Building 15 | Wei Z.,Stevens Institute of Technology | Chen Z.,Jilin University | Cui H.,Building 15
Optical Engineering | Year: 2011

A novel liquid-level sensor based on a fiber Bragg grating and carbon fiber composite diaphragm is proposed and demonstrated. The sensing principle and finite element analysis result are described. Because the carbon fiber composite diaphragms thickness is 0.2 mm and thinner than that of other materials, the sensitivity of the liquid-level sensor is improved. The experimental results show that sensitivity can reach 0.185 nmm of water height. Based on the high sensitivity and the simple structure of the sensor, this sensor can find applications in the area of liquid level sensing. © 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

Hickman I.J.,Building 15 | Hickman I.J.,Materials Medical Research Institute | Whitehead J.P.,Materials Medical Research Institute
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

Since its discovery in 1995 adiponectin has garnered considerable interest from the academic, clinical and biotech communities due to its proposed salutary anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-atherogenic and cardioprotective properties. As a result our appreciation of adiponectin's structure and the importance of post-translational modifications (PTMs) in adiponectin production are now relatively advanced. So too, following the identification of a variety of adiponectin receptors, binding proteins and downstream signalling networks, is our understanding of adiponectin's intracellular signalling pathways that are implicated in mediating adiponectin's pleiotropic effects. Adiponectin's ability to moderate inflammation, which is recognised as a key protagonist in many modern diseases, may be the key to many of its beneficial effects. Recent insights indicate that adiponectin modulates cellular inflammation by affecting sphingolipid metabolism, with the adiponectin receptors displaying intrinsic ceramidase activity. In the current review we will summarise the molecular details of adiponectin, discuss key players and recent insights into adiponectin signalling and consider the physiologic role(s) of adiponectin. We will also review studies into the effects of diet or exercise on circulating adiponectin levels focusing largely on reports from human trials. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

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