Time filter

Source Type

Dhaka, Bangladesh

Fatema K.,Bangladesh University | Fatema K.,University of New South Wales | Zwar N.A.,University of New South Wales | Milton A.H.,University of Newcastle | And 3 more authors.
Public Health | Year: 2016

Objectives: The incidences of non-communicable diseases including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is increasing in Bangladesh. The reasons for this increasing trend need to be explored. The aim of this study is to assess the risk of CVDs among a peripheral rural Bangladeshi population and to explore the sociodemographic, anthropometric and clinical variables associated with increased risk. Study design: Cohort study. Methods: From a cohort of 190,471 individuals of all ages, originally included in a diabetic eye disease program initiated in 2008-2009, a purposive sub-cohort of 66,710 individuals, aged 31-74 years was recruited. During 2011-2012 these participants were assessed for CVDs using the WHO's risk assessment tool designed for primary care settings in low resource societies. Participant characteristics associated with higher risk were explored using univariable and multivariable regression analysis. Results: Out of all (95.5% participation rate) participants 1170 (1.84%) were found to be at high risk for CVD. The prevalence of hypertension (HTN), pre-HTN, obesity, underweight and self-reported DM were 8.9%, 15.2%, 9.6%, 7.8% and 0.5% respectively, among the study population. In multivariable regression analysis female sex, older age, temporary housing structure (i.e., tin shed), extremes of BMI (both underweight and obese) and central obesity were associated with higher risk for CVDs. Conclusions: The prevalence of CVD risk factors and high CVD risk individuals in this cohort was found to be lower than previous studies. It may be the effects of urbanization are yet to reach this relatively traditional rural population. This study adds to the literature on use of the WHO risk assessment tool. © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Source

Fatema K.,Bangladesh University | Zwar N.A.,University of New South Wales | Milton A.H.,University of Newcastle | Rahman B.,BUHS | Ali L.,Bangladesh University
BMJ Open | Year: 2015

Objectives: To estimate the absolute cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk burden in a remote rural Bangladeshi population using the 'With' and 'Without' Cholesterol versions of the WHO/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) CVD risk assessment chart (particularly suitable for low and middle-income countries due to less reliance on laboratory testing) and to evaluate the agreement between the two approaches. Design: Cross-sectional study using data from a large prospective cohort of the North Bengal Non-Communicable Disease Programme (NB-NCDP) of Bangladesh. Setting: General rural population from Thakurgaon district of Bangladesh. Participants: 563 individuals who were categorised as having 'no CVDs' on screening by a questionnairebased survey using the 'WHO CVD-Risk Management Package' developed in 2002. Main outcome measures: Absolute CVD risk burden assessed using two versions of the WHO/ISH risk assessment charts for the South-East Asian Region-D. Results: 10-year risk (moderate, high and very high) positivity was present among 21.5% and 20.2% of participants, respectively, using with and without cholesterol versions of the tool. The overall concordance rate for the two versions was 89.5% and they did not differ significantly in estimating the proportion of overall participants having higher levels of CVD. The projected drug requirement, however, showed a significant overestimation in the proportion of participants at both the threshold levels (p0.002) on using 'without' as compared to 'with' cholesterol versions. Conclusions: About one-fifth of the adult population in Bangladesh, even in a remote rural area, seem to be at risk of developing CVDs (25% of them at high risk and 25% at very high risk) within 10 years with males and females being almost equally vulnerable. Source

Bhowmik B.,University of Oslo | Akhter A.,Bangladesh Institute of Health science BIHS | Ali L.,BUHS | Ahmed T.,Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Diabetes Investigation | Year: 2015

Aims/Introduction: To develop and evaluate a simple, non-invasive, diabetes risk score for detecting individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes in rural Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: Data from 2,293 randomly selected individuals aged ≥20 years from a cross-sectional study in a rural community of Bangladesh (2009 Chandra Rural Study) was used for model development. The validity of the model was assessed in another rural cross-sectional study (2009 Thakurgaon Rural Study). The logistic regression model used included age, sex, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio and hypertension status to predict individuals who were at high risk for type 2 diabetes. Results: On applying the developed model to both cohorts, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.70 (95% confidence interval 0.68-0.72) for the Chandra cohort and 0.71 (95% confidence interval 0.68-0.74) for the Thakurgaon cohort. The risk score of >9 was shown to have the optimal cut-point to detect diabetes. This score had a sensitivity of 62.4 and 75.7%, and specificity of 67.4 and 61.6% in the two cohorts, respectively. This risk score was shown to have improved sensitivity and specificity to detect type 2 diabetes cases compared with the Thai, Indian, Omani, UK, Dutch, Portuguese and Pakistani diabetes risk scores. Conclusions: This simple, non-invasive risk score can be used to detect individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes in rural Bangladesh. Subjects with a score of 9 or above (out of 15) should undergo an oral glucose tolerance test for definitive diagnosis of diabetes. © 2015 Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. Source

Akter J.,Bangladesh University | Shahjahan M.,Daffodil International University | Hossain S.,BUHS | Chowdhury H.A.,BUHS | And 4 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2014

Background: Several reproductive disorders with overweight and obesity are now known to be associated with insulin resistance. The study was aimed to assess the proportion and determinants of overweight and obesity among diabetic women of reproductive age. Methods. This cross-sectional analytic study was conducted among 888 diabetic women of reproductive age attending the out-patient department (OPD) of the central hospital of the Diabetic Association. Body Mass Index (BMI) was used to assess the general obesity. Waist Circumference (WC), Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR) and Waist-Height Ratio (WHtR) were used to assess central obesity. Results: The overall prevalence of overweight was 22% (95% CI 19-24) and that of obesity was 48% (95% CI 45-51). Prevalence of central obesity by waist circumference was 77%, by waist-hip ratio was 99.9% and by waist-height ratio was 89%. Overweight and obesity were higher in the age group of 45-49 years (49%) and 35-44 years (24%) respectively. On Pearson's correlation analysis, BMI and WC were significantly correlated with age (r = 0.135, p = 0.001; r = 0.162, p = 0.001) and income (r = 0.151, p = 0.001; r = 0.087, p = 0.009) respectively. WHR was also correlated with income (r = 0.094, p = 0.005). Moreover, WHtR was significantly correlated with age (r = 0.139, p = 0.001), income (r = 0.069, p = 0.04) and duration of diabetes (r = 0.073, p = 0.03).On binary logistic regression analysis, BMI was significantly associated with age, income and management of diabetes by Oral Hypoglycemic Agent (OHA) (p < 0.05). WC was significantly associated with age, income and management of diabetes by OHA and insulin (p < 0.05). Where, WHR was significantly associated only with duration of diabetes (p < 0.05). WHtR was significantly associated with age (p < 0.05), management of diabetes by OHA (p < 0.05) and insulin (p < 0.05) in this analysis. Conclusions: A high prevalence of both overweight and obesity exists in diabetic women of reproductive age in Bangladesh and it seems to be associated with increasing age, income, duration of diabetes, and use of oral hypoglycemic agents. © 2014 Akter et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Mumu S.J.,Bangladesh University | Saleh F.,BUHS | Ara F.,BUHS | Haque M.R.,University of Dhaka | Ali L.,BUHS
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2014

Background: Awareness regarding risk factors is a prerequisite for the prevention of diabetes in general population. However, there are great variations in the level of this awareness from population to population and this needs to be explored in different ethnic and social groups for designing appropriate preventive strategies. The purpose of the study was to assess the level of awareness regarding the risk factors responsible for the development of type 2 diabetes and its determinants among individuals who attended a tertiary care hospital.Methods. Under an analytical cross-sectional design, 400 non-diabetic respondents, aged >30 years, were conveniently selected from the Out-Patient Department of BIRDEM, the tertiary care hospital of the Diabetic Association of Bangladesh. A pretested, semi-structured questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge and attitude of the respondents. Respondents' level of knowledge and attitude were categorized as good, average and poor (GAP). Multivariate along with bivariate statistics was used to measure knowledge and attitude of type 2 diabetes.Results: Among the respondents the levels of knowledge and attitude were 13%, 10% good; 68%, 75% average and 19%, 14% poor respectively. In multivariate analysis, high literacy (p = 0.0001), respondents who are in service (p = 0.02) and family history of diabetes (p = 0.02) were found significantly associated with the knowledge score after adjustment. Respondents who had passed secondary and higher secondary education had a significant association (p = 0.03) with the attitude score. Housewives had a significantly lower attitude score than others (p = 0.04). Family history of diabetes and knowledge on the risk factors of diabetes showed significant positive association with the attitude score (p = 0.013 and p = 0.0001 respectively).Conclusions: Overall, respondents participating in this study have average awareness regarding risk factors of diabetes. From a public health perspective, there is a decisive need of innovative prevention programs for targeting people including high-risk individuals. © 2014 Mumu et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Discover hidden collaborations