Bugando Medical Center

Mwanza, Tanzania

Bugando Medical Center

Mwanza, Tanzania

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Downs J.A.,New York Medical College | Downs J.A.,Bugando Medical Center | Reif L.K.,New York Medical College | Hokororo A.,Bugando Medical Center | Fitzgerald D.W.,New York Medical College
Academic Medicine | Year: 2014

Globally, women experience a disproportionate burden of disease and death due to inequities in access to basic health care, nutrition, and education. In the face of this disparity, it is striking that leadership in the field of global health is highly skewed towards men and that global health organizations neglect the issue of gender equality in their own leadership. Randomized trials demonstrate that women in leadership positions in governmental organizations implement different policies than men and that these policies are more supportive of women and children. Other studies show that proactive interventions to increase the proportion of women in leadership positions within businesses or government can be successful. Therefore, the authors assert that increasing female leadership in global health is both feasible and a fundamental step towards addressing the problem of women's health. In this Perspective, the authors contrast the high proportion of young female trainees who are interested in academic global health early in their careers with the low numbers of women successfully rising to global health leadership roles. The authors subsequently explore reasons for female attrition from the field of global health and offer practical strategies for closing the gender gap in global health leadership. The authors propose solutions aimed to promote female leaders from both resource-wealthy and resource-poor countries, including leadership training grants, mentorship from female leaders in global professions, strengthening health education in resource-poor countries, research-enabling grants, and altering institutional policies to support women choosing a global health career path.


Rambau P.F.,Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences | Chalya P.L.,Bugando Medical Center | Jackson K.,Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences
Infectious Agents and Cancer | Year: 2013

Introduction. Worldwide, cancers of the urinary bladder are well known to be associated with environmental chemical carcinogens such as smoking and occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These cancers are typically transitional cell carcinoma (urothelial carcinoma). In areas where schistosomiasis is endemic there is a high incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Schistosomiasis causes chronic granulomatous cystitis leading to squamous metaplasia of transitional epithelium, and subsequently development of squamous cell carcinoma. The western part of Tanzania on the shores of Lake Victoria is such an endemic area. This study was done to document the burden of urinary bladder cancer associated with schistosomiasis in this region. Methods. This was a descriptive retrospective study of histologically confirmed cases of urinary bladder cancer seen at the Department of Pathology Bugando Medical Centre (BMC) over a period of 10 years. Data were retrieved from the records of the Departments of Pathology, Medical Records and Surgery. Data were analyzed by the use of contingency tables. Results: A total of 185 patients were diagnosed with cancer of the urinary bladder during the study period, where as 90 (48.6%) were males and 95 (51.4) were females. The mean age at diagnosis was 54.3 years. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most frequent histological type (55.1%), followed by conventional transitional cell carcinoma (40.5%). Eighty three of all cancer cases (44.9%) were found to have schistosomal eggs. Schistosomiasis was commonly associated with squamous cancers compared to non squamous cancers. Most of the cancers associated with schistosomiasis had invaded the muscularis propria of the urinary bladder at the time of diagnosis (p<0.001) and such cancers were frequent below 50 years of age with a significant statistical difference (p<0.001). Poorly differentiated tumors were more frequent in females than males with a significant statistical difference (p=0.006). Conclusion: The majority of urinary bladder cancers seen in the Lake Region were squamous cell carcinoma associated with schistosomiasis. These cancers showed an aggressive behavior and were commonly seen in the younger age groups. Effective control of schistosomiasis in this region should significantly reduce the burden of urinary bladder cancer. © 2013 Rambau et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Meda J.,The University of Dodoma | Kalluvya S.,Bugando Medical Center | Downs J.A.,Bugando Medical Center | Downs J.A.,Cornell College | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2014

Background: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) has a mortality rate of ∼70% among HIV-infected adults in low-income countries. Controlling intracranial pressure (ICP) is essential in CM, but it is difficult in low-income countries because manometers and practical ICP management protocols are lacking. Methods: As part of a continuous quality improvement project, our Tanzanian hospital initiated a new protocol for ICP management for CM. All adult inpatients with CM are included in a prospective patient registry. At the time of analysis, this registry included data from 2 years before the initiation of this new ICP management protocol and for a 9-month period after. ICP was measured at baseline and at days 3, 7, and 14 by both manometer and intravenous (IV) tubing set. All patients were given IV fluconazole according to Tanzanian treatment guidelines and were followed until 30 days after admission. Results: Among adult inpatients with CM, 32 of 35 patients (91%) had elevated ICP on admission. Cerebrospinal fluid pressure measurements using the improvised IV tubing set demonstrated excellent agreement (r2 = 0.96) with manometer measurements. Compared with historical controls, the new ICP management protocol was associated with a significant reduction in 30-day mortality (16/35 [46%] vs. 48/64 [75%] in historical controls; hazard ratio = 2.1 [95% CI: 1.1 to 3.8]; P = 0.018]. Conclusions: Increased ICP is almost universal among HIV-infected adults admitted with CM in Tanzania. Intensive ICP management with a strict schedule of serial lumbar punctures reduced in-hospital mortality compared with historical controls. ICP measurement with IV tubing sets may be a good alternative in resource-limited health facilities where manometers are not available. Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Mhada T.V.,Bugando Medical Center | Fredrick F.,Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences | Matee M.I.,Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences | Massawe A.,Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences
BMC Public Health | Year: 2012

Background: Neonatal sepsis contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality among young infants. The aetiological agents as well as their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents are dynamic. This study determined aetiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and clinical outcome of neonatal sepsis at Muhimbili National Hospital. Methods. Three hundred and thirty neonates admitted at the Muhimbili National Hospital neonatal ward between October, 2009 and January, 2010 were recruited. Standardized questionnaires were used to obtain demographic and clinical information. Blood and pus samples were cultured on MacConkey, blood and chocolate agars and bacteria were identified based on characteristic morphology, gram stain appearance and standard commercially prepared biochemical tests. Antimicrobial sensitivity testing was performed for ampicillin, cloxacillin, gentamicin, amikacin, cefuroxime and ceftriaxone on Mueller Hinton agar using the Kirby Bauer diffusion method. Results: Culture proven sepsis was noted in 24% (74/330) of the study participants. Isolated bacterial pathogens were predominantly Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella spp and Escherichia coli. Klebsiella spp 32.7% (17/52) was the predominant blood culture isolate in neonates aged below seven days while Staphylococcus aureus 54.5% (12/22) was commonest among those aged above seven days. Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant pus swabs isolate for both neonates aged 0-6 days 42.2% (98/232) and 7-28 days 52.3% (34/65). Resistance of blood culture isolates was high to ampicillin 81.1% (60/74) and cloxacillin 78.4% (58/74), moderate to ceftriaxone 14.9% (11/74) and cefuroxime 18.9% (14/74), and low to amikacin 1.3% (1/74). Isolates from swabs had high resistance to ampicillin 89.9% (267/297) and cloxacillin 85.2 (253/297), moderate resistance to ceftriaxone 38.0% (113/297) and cefuroxime 36.0% (107/297), and low resistance to amikacin 4.7% (14/297). Sepsis was higher in neonates with fever and hypothermia (p=0.02), skin pustules (p<0.001), umbilical pus discharge and abdominal wall hyperemia (p=0.04). Presence of skin pustules was an independent predictor of sepsis OR 0.26, 95% CI (0.10-0.66) p=0.004. The overall death rate was 13.9% (46/330), being higher in neonates with sepsis 24.3% (18/74) than those without 10.9% (28/256), p=0.003. Conclusions: Staphylococcus aureus was predominant isolate followed by Klebsiella and Escherichia coli. There was high resistance to ampicillin and cloxacillin. Mortality rate due to neonatal sepsis was high in our setting. Routine antimicrobial surveillance should guide the choice of antibiotics for empirical treatment of neonatal sepsis. © 2012 Mhada et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Matovelo D.,Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences | Ng'Walida N.,Bugando Medical Center
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2014

Background: Abdominal pregnancy is a rare condition which is usually missed during prenatal assessment particularly in settings lacking routine ultrasound surveillance. We report a case of abdominal pregnancy at 32 weeks, which is most likely to have been a tubal abortion with secondary implantation, leading to delivery of a healthy baby girl weighing 1.7 kg. Case presentation. A 22-year-old woman, gravid 3 para 2 was referred to our centre from a district hospital with complaint of generalized abdominal pain and reduced fetal movements. Although the initial abdomino-pelvic ultrasound done at our centre was read as normal, there was subsequently a strong clinical suspicion of abdominal pregnancy, which was confirmed by a second ultrasound. The patient underwent laparotomy and was found to have an intact uterus with a viable fetus floating in the abdominal cavity without its amniotic sac and with hemoperitoneum of 1litre. The baby was extracted successfully; the placenta was found to be deeply implanted on the right cornual side extending to the fundus superiorly. Wedge resection of the cornual area and fundus was performed to remove the placenta. Intraoperatively, one unit of blood was transfused due to severe anemia prior to surgery. Both the mother and the baby were discharged home in good condition. Conclusion: Abdominal pregnancy can be missed prenatally even when an imaging (ultrasound) facility is available. Emphasis should be placed on clinical assessment and thorough evaluation of patients. © 2014 Matovelo and Ng'walida; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Chalya P.L.,Bugando Medical Center | Rambau P.F.,Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences | Masalu N.,Bugando Medical Center | Simbila S.,Bugando Medical Center
World Journal of Surgical Oncology | Year: 2015

Background: Penile cancer is an uncommon malignancy in developed countries, but the incidence is as high as 10% to 20% of all male cancers in some developing countries. There is a paucity of published data on this subject in our setting. This study describes the clinicopathological presentation and treatment outcome of this condition in our environment, and highlights challenges associated with the care of these patients and proffers solutions for improved outcome. Methods: This was a retrospective study of histologically confirmed cases of penile cancer seen at Bugando Medical Centre between January 2004 and December 2013. Results: There were 236 penile cancer patients representing 2.2% of all male malignancies during the study period. The median age was 47 years with a modal age group of 41 to 50 years. Of the 236 patients, 147 (62.3%) had severe phimosis. The majority of patients (89.8%) were uncircumcised. A history of human papilloma virus (HPV) was reported in 12 (5.1%) cases. One hundred eighty-two (77.1%) patients reported history of cigarette smoking. Seven (6.7%) patients were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive. The majority of the patients (68.6%) presented with Jackson's stages III and IV. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common histopathological type (99.2%). Lymph node metastasis was recorded in 65.3% of cases, and it was significantly associated with the tumor size, histopathological subtype, histopathological grade, lympho-vascular invasion, positive resection margins, and urethral involvement (P < 0.001). Distant metastasis accounted for 4.2% of cases. The majority of patients (63.1%) underwent partial penectomy. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy were given in 14 (5.9%) and 12 (5.1%) patients, respectively. Complication and mortality rates were 22.0% and 4.2%, respectively. HIV positivity, histopathological stage and grade of the tumor, and presence of metastases at the time of diagnosis were the main predictors of death (P < 0.001). The median length of hospitalization was 14 days. Local recurrence was reported in 12 (5.3%) patients. Data on long-term survivals were not available as the majority of patients were lost to follow-up. Conclusions: Penile cancer is not rare in our environment. The majority of patients present late with advanced stage of the disease. Early detection of primary cancer at an early stage may improve the prognosis. © Chalya et al.


Kafuruki L.,Bugando Medical Center | Rambau P.F.,Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences | Massinde A.,Bugando Medical Center | Masalu N.,Bugando Medical Center
Infectious Agents and Cancer | Year: 2013

Introduction. Cancer of the cervix rank the second most common cause of cancer related deaths among women in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is estimated that 529, 409 new cases are diagnosed annually with a mortality rate approaching 274,883 per year. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) precedes almost all cervical cancers. The incidence rate of CIN among HIV infected women is five times higher as compared to the rate in HIV negative women. The screening for cervical dysplasia and an appropriate management in women with CIN are effective methods for preventing cervical cancer. This study was done to determine the prevalence and predictors of CIN among a HIV infected women attending Care and Treatment centre (CTC) at Bugando Medical Centre (BMC). Methods. A cross sectional survey was undertaken among HIV infected women aged 18 years and above attending at BMC CTC clinic between February and March 2013. Visual Inspection with Acetic acid (VIA) was used as the screening method for detection of CIN. Socio-demographic, reproductive and clinical information was obtained from participants and the blood was collected for CD4 lymphocyte count. Cervical punch biopsy for histological examination was performed for those who had VIA positive test. Data were entered and analyzed using STATA Version 12.0 soft ware. Results: A total number of 95 (26.8%) participants had positive VIA test among three hundred and fifty-five (355) HIV infected women. Histology results showed; 4(4.2%) were normal, 26 (27.4%) had an inflammatory lesion, 58(61.1%) had CIN and 7(7.3%) had invasive cervical cancer. CIN was found to be associated with a history of multiple sexual partners (P<0.001), a history of genital warts (P<0.001), and a history of STI (P = 0.010). Conclusion: The Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia is a problem among HIV infected women. A history of multiple sexual partners, a history of genital warts, a history STI and a low baseline CD4 T lymphocyte were significant predictors for CIN. Screening for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia is recommended for all women with HIV. © 2013 Kafuruki et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Rambau P.,Health Science University | Chalya P.,Health Science University | Manyama M.,Health Science University | Jackson K.,Bugando Medical Center
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2011

Background: Breast cancer is more common in Western Countries compared to African populations. However in African population, it appears that the disease tends to be more aggressive and occurring at a relatively young age at the time of presentation. The aim of this study was to describe the trend of Breast Cancer in Northwestern Tanzania. Methods. This was a retrospective study which involved all cases of breast cancer diagnosed histologically at Bugando Medical Center from 2002 to 2010. Histological results and slides were retrieved from the records in the Pathology department, clinical information and demographic data for patients were retrieved from surgical wards and department of medical records. Histology slides were re-evaluated for the histological type, grade (By modified Bloom-Richardson score), and presence of necrosis and skin involvement. Data was entered and analyzed by SPSS computer software version 15. Findings. There were 328 patients histologically confirmed to have breast cancer, the mean age at diagnosis was 48.7 years (+/- 13.1). About half of the patients (52.4%) were below 46 years of age, and this group of patients had significantly higher tendency for lymph node metastasis (p = 0.012). The tumor size ranged from 1 cm to 18 cm in diameter with average (mean) of 5.5 cm (+/- 2.5), and median size of 6 cm. Size of the tumor (above 6 cm in diameter) and presence of necrosis within the tumor was significantly associated with high rate of lymph node metastasis (p = 0.000). Of all patients, 64% were at clinical stage III (specifically IIIB) and 70.4% had lymph node metastasis at the time of diagnosis. Only 4.3% of the patients were in clinical stage I at the time of diagnosis. Majority of the patients had invasive ductal carcinoma (91.5%) followed by mucinous carcinoma (5.2%), Invasive lobular carcinoma (3%) and in situ ductal carcinoma (0.3%). In all patients, 185 (56.4%) had tumor with histological grade 3. Conclusion: Breast cancer in this region show a trend towards relative young age at diagnosis with advanced stage at diagnosis and high rate of lymph node metastasis. Poor Referral system, lack of screening programs and natural aggressive biological behavior of tumor may contribute to advanced disease at the time of diagnosis. © 2011 Rambau et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Chalya P.L.,Bugando Medical Center | Simbila S.,Bugando Medical Center | Rambau P.F.,Bugando Medical Center
World journal of surgical oncology | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Testicular cancers constitute major therapeutic challenges in resource-limited countries and still carry poor outcomes. There is a paucity of published data regarding testicular cancer in Tanzania, and Bugando Medical Centre in particular. This study describes the clinicopathological pattern, treatment outcome and challenges in the management of testicular cancer in our local setting.METHODS: This was a retrospective study including all patients who had had histopathologically confirmed testicular cancer at Bugando Medical Centre between February 2004 and January 2014.RESULTS: A total of 56 testicular cancer patients were enrolled in the study, representing 0.9% of all malignancies. The median age of patients at presentation was 28 years, with a peak incidence in the 21-to-30-year age group. A family history of testicular cancer was reported in four (5.4%) patients. A history of cryptorchidism was reported in six (10.7%) patients. Most patients (57.1%) presented late with an advanced stage of cancer. Testicular swelling was the main complaint in 48 (85.7%) patients. The right testis was involved in 67.9% of cases. Lymph node and distant metastases were documented in 10 (17.9%) and 12 (21.4%) patients, respectively. Histologically, 80.4% of patients had germ cell cancers, with seminoma accounting for 62.2% of cases. The most common surgical procedure was inguinal orchidectomy (77.4%). Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy were used in six (11.1%) and four (7.4%) patients, respectively. Eight (14.3%) patients died. The main predictors of mortality (P<0.001) were patient's age (>65 years), late presentation (>6 months), stage of disease, and presence of metastasis at time of diagnosis. The mean follow-up period was 22 months. At the end of five years, only 18 (37.5%) patients were available for follow-up and the overall 5-year survival rate was 22.2%. The main predictors of 5-year survival rate (P<0.001) were patients' age, stage of disease, and presence of lymph node and distant metastases.CONCLUSIONS: Testicular cancers, though rare in our setting, still carries a poor prognosis. Late presentation, poverty, paucity of resources and the high cost of newer imaging and treatment modalities are major challenges to management. Better health funding and education regarding testicular self-examination is essential.


Ndaboine E.M.,Bugando Medical Center
African journal of reproductive health | Year: 2012

Eclampsia continues to be a major problem, particularly in developing countries such as Tanzania, contributing significantly to high maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. We conducted a study to establish the incidence of eclampsia and the associated maternal and perinatal outcomes among eclamptic patients admitted to our center. A descriptive cross-sectional study of all women presenting with eclampsia was performed from June 2009 to February 2010. Seventy-six patients presented with eclampsia out of a total 5562 deliveries during the study period (incidence of 1.37%). Antenatal attendance was 96% among patients with eclampsia; however, only 45.21% and 24.66% were screened for blood pressure and proteinuria respectively. Maternal and perinatal case fatality rates were 7.89% and 20.73% respectively. The main factors contributing to maternal deaths were acute renal failure (10.5%), pulmonary oedema (10.5%), maternal stroke (8.8%), HELLP syndrome (50.9%), and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulopathy (3.5%). Perinatal deaths were caused by prematurity (42.9%) and birth asphyxia (57.1%). Forty-eight babies had low-birth weight (58.54%). The high incidence of eclampsia and its complications during this study period may indicate the need for earlier and more meticulous intervention at both the clinic and hospital levels.

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