Buffalo, NY, United States
Buffalo, NY, United States

The State University of New York College at Buffalo is a public university in Buffalo, New York, United States, and is part of the State University of New York system. Buffalo State was founded in 1871 as the Buffalo Normal School for the training of teachers. Located on a 125-acre campus in the heart of Buffalo’s cultural corridor, SUNY Buffalo State now offers a wide array of academic programs, including 171 undergraduate programs with 11 honors options, 11 postbaccalaureate teacher certification programs, and 61 graduate programs.The college is almost always referred to as Buffalo State to contrast it with the much larger nearby University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, known locally as the "University at Buffalo" or "UB." Wikipedia.

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News Article | March 18, 2017
Site: www.techtimes.com

The advent of spring heralds many changes such as a rising temperature, the melting of ice, and the blooming of flowers. This transition from winter to the growing season is called the "vernal window" by scientists. According to a new study conducted led by researchers at the University of New Hampshire, there is an early opening of the vernal window and the phase may last longer. This indicates that there will be more spring days than usual. The study spotted many changes in the transitory duration of the vernal window while probing the possible reasons for it. "Historically, the transition into spring is comparatively shorter than other seasons," says Alexandra Contosta, an assistant professor at the Earth Systems Research Center at the University of New Hampshire. Spring is marked by the melting of snow and more water moving through aquatic systems, nutrients flowing through that water, soils getting warm, and buds breaking on trees, Contosta adds. It is like an awakening of sorts and gives the feeling that spring is happening so quickly and dramatically. The signs of spring don't seem to be happening rapidly now, however. Contosta and her team say that climate change is altering the timing and duration of the vernal window. The researchers delved into the linkage between warmer winters with less snow, a longer lag between spring events, and an extended transition from winter to spring to understand how climate change alters the vernal window. Their findings were published in the journal Global Change Biology. To see how the declining snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere influences the early opening of the vernal window, Contosta and her team used data from the New Hampshire EPSCoR network. They also monitored snow levels and forest covers for a period of three years and supplemented it with data on precipitation and information gleaned by satellites. In the research, a detailed study was made on dates connected with events that coincide with the seasonal changes such as snow melting, the budding of leaves in trees, and the time period between various events. According to experts, changes in the spring timetable trigger ecological, social, and economic consequences. These aspects are under investigation by Contosta's team. Many activities in agriculture and fisheries are dependent on the climate conditions during springtime. When spring stays longer, the mud season will also extend, requiring more road repairs and limitations in truck weight. Corresponding changes in the span of the sugar maple season and changes in bird migration trends will be the other fallouts. In western New York, spring's early arrival is apparent in blossoms all around. Its impact on the local growing season was commented on by Eric Randall, a professor emeritus at Buffalo State College. "We've just come off the warmest February in western New York in recorded times, since the 1880s. Lake Erie is free of ice. They've taken the Ice Boom out. That is not common," Randall says. Randall says crops are affected by the mild winter weather that has already hit vernal crops. Regarding the impact on wheat crops planted during the fall, the poor snow cover and little frost on the ground will be triggering harmful plant insects across western New York, adds Randall. He also sees a change in pattern with regard to birds and animals. Randall says he heard the sounds of killdeers already and skunks are running. Randall notes that there are many attributes associated with temperature on crops, ranging from snow cover to ice formation. According to Randall, it is too early to say the early spring or abnormal weather is a result of climate change. But he is sure "something's happening" and advises to wait and watch until the fall before passing a comment about the mild winter's effect on the upcoming growing season. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.


Wells J.W.,Buffalo State College
AIP Advances | Year: 2017

The high temperature ESR spectra’s anomalous appearance at very low temperatures for the methyl radical created in single crystals is explained by magnetic dipole interactions with neighboring protons. These protons acting via phonon vibrations induce resonant oscillations with the methyl group to establish a very temperature sensitive ‘‘relaxation’’ mode that allows the higher energy ‘‘E’’ state electrons with spin 1/2 to ‘‘decay’’ into ‘‘A’’ spin 1/2 states. Because of the amplitude amplification with temperature, the ‘‘E’’ state population is depleted and the ‘‘A’’ state population augmented to produce the high temperature ESR spectrum. This phenomenon is found to be valid for all but the very highest barriers to methyl group tunneling. In support, a time dependent spin population study shows this temperature evolution in the state populations under this perturbation. © 2017 Author(s).


Krieg E.J.,Buffalo State College
American Journal of Economics and Sociology | Year: 2014

The power of social institutions to influence patterns of behavior is evident in the dairy industry. Secondary data from the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) show that dairy operators adapt to market pressures by expanding the size of their herds and/or adopting technologies that intensify milk production. A grounded theory approach using primary data collected in interviews with organic dairy operators reveals active resistance to the power imposed upon them by social institutions. © 2014 American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Inc.


Unique resource benefiting practitioners and researchers in clinical psychology is one of five new psychology books published by Elsevier CAMBRIDGE, MA--(Marketwired - February 13, 2017) - Elsevier, a world-leading provider of scientific, technical and medical information products and services, today announced the publication of Explaining Suicide: Patterns, Motivations, and What Notes Reveal by Cheryl Meyer, Taronish Irani, Katherine Hermes and Betty Yung. It is the first large-scale analysis of suicide motivation across multiple ages in the same time period, made possible via a unique dataset of all suicide notes collected by the coroner's office in southwestern Ohio from 2000 through 2009. At the same time, Elsevier announced publication of four additional psychology books. Based on an analysis of the Ohio dataset and those from other European and Oceanic studies, Explaining Suicide identifies top motivations for suicide, how these differ between note leavers and non-note leavers, and how that information relates to better suicide prevention. The book reveals the extent to which suicide is motivated by interpersonal violence, substance abuse, physical pain, grief, feelings of failure and mental illness. It also discusses other risk factors, what differentiates suicide attempters from suicide completers, and what might serve as protective factors toward resilience. Learn more about The Complexity of Suicide Motivation in this sample chapter. Cheryl Meyer, a professor at Ohio's Wright State University School of Professional Psychology, has a unique combination of degrees including a Master's degree in Clinical Psychology, a Ph.D. in Social Psychology and a law degree. Her research has an interdisciplinary focus incorporating legal, educational, psychological and sociological perspectives. Dr. Meyer's research interests focus on forensic psychology, specifically intrafamilial violence, and program evaluation. Taronish Irani, a licensed clinical psychologist working at The Counseling Center at SUNY Buffalo State College, received her Master's degree in Clinical Psychology from University of Mumbai, India and a Psy.D. degree in Clinical Psychology from Wright State University. Some of her clinical and research areas include trauma informed care, diversity issues, consultation, psychology education and training, violence and suicide prevention, forensic psychology, and international psychology. Katherine Hermes is chair of the History Department at Central Connecticut State University, where she has taught since 1997. She was co-coordinator of the Women, Gender and Sexuality Studies Program at CCSU from 2006-2008. Dr. Hermes received her law degree from Duke University School of Law and her Ph.D. in History from Yale University. Her fields of specialty are Early American history, the Atlantic World, legal history and Native American history. Betty Yung led this project but died before it was completed. She served as officer of grants, research, evaluation and accreditation for five years at Wright State University, and in 1988, joined the School of Professional Psychology as a grants and proposals writer. Dr. Yung's areas of specialty included violence prevention and health disparities for minority populations. She also was a grant reviewer for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on family violence initiatives. The five new psychology titles are: In order to meet content needs in psychology, Elsevier uses proprietary tools to identify the gaps in coverage of the topics. Editorial teams strategically fill those gaps with content written by key influencers in the field, giving students, faculty and researchers the content they need to answer challenging questions and improve outcomes. These new books, which will educate the next generation of psychologists, and provide critical foundational content for information professionals, are key examples of how Elsevier is enabling science to drive innovation. Note for Editors E-book review copies of the new books are available to credentialed journalists upon request. Contact Jelena Baras at sciencereviewcopies@elsevier.com. About Elsevier Elsevier is a world-leading provider of information solutions that enhance the performance of science, health, and technology professionals, empowering them to make better decisions, deliver better care, and sometimes make groundbreaking discoveries that advance the boundaries of knowledge and human progress. Elsevier provides web-based, digital solutions -- among them ScienceDirect, Scopus, Research Intelligence and ClinicalKey -- and publishes over 2,500 journals, including The Lancet and Cell, and more than 35,000 book titles, including a number of iconic reference works. Elsevier is part of RELX Group, a world-leading provider of information and analytics for professional and business customers across industries. www.elsevier.com


News Article | November 11, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Parents could use the technology at home to determine if there is a need for clinical examination BUFFALO, N.Y. -- What if someone invented a smartphone app that could help detect autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children as young as 2 years old? Could it lead to earlier detection and therefore better treatment? A study co-authored by a University at Buffalo undergraduate and presented at the IEEE Wireless Health conference at the National Institutes of Health last month could provide the answer. It involves the creation of an app for cell phones, tablets or computers that tracks eye movement to determine, in less than a minute, if a child is showing signs of autism spectrum disorder. Early detection of autism can dramatically improve the benefits of treatment, but often the disability is not suspected until a child enters school. "The brain continues to grow and develop after birth. The earlier the diagnosis, the better. Then we can inform families and begin therapies which will improve symptoms and outcome," said Michelle Hartley-McAndrew, MD, clinical assistant professor of pediatrics and neurology at the Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences at UB. Hartley-McAndrew, medical director of the Children's Guild Foundation Autism Spectrum Disorder Center at Women & Children's Hospital of Buffalo, is a co-author of the study. "Although it's never too late to start therapy, research demonstrates the earlier we diagnose, the better our outcomes," said Kathy Ralabate Doody, PhD, an assistant professor in the Department of Exceptional Education at SUNY Buffalo State College and a co-author of the study. "We offer many educational interventions to help children with autism reach the same developmental milestones met by children with typical development." The principal author is Kun Woo Cho, an undergraduate majoring in computer science and engineering. She worked with her research advisor Wenyao Xu, PhD, assistant professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering in UB's School of Engineering and Applied Sciences. "This is an ongoing study on how to analyze ASD by monitoring gaze patterns. I used the Wasserstein metric, designed the system protocol, and visual stimuli using social scenes. This is teamwork, and I learned from my advisor and graduate students in the lab," Cho said. "On all the research work, we are working together." Those lab co-workers and study co-authors are Feng Lin, PhD, research scientist, and Chen Song and Xiaowei Xu, PhD, students in UB's Department of Computer Science and Engineering. The app tracks eye movements of a child looking at pictures of social scenes -- for example, those with multiple people. The eye movements of someone with ASD are often different from those of a person without autism. In the study, the app had an accuracy rating of 93.96 percent. "Right now it is a prototype. We have to consider if other neurological conditions are included, like ADD, how that will affect the outcome," Cho said. The study, entitled "Gaze-Wasserstein: A Quantitative Screening Approach to Autism Spectrum Disorder," was one of the top-ranked papers at the flagship Wireless Health conference this year, Xu said. Autism spectrum disorder affects 1-2 people per 1,000 worldwide. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that about 1 in 68 children in the U.S. has been diagnosed with ASD. "The beauty of the mobile app is that it can be used by parents at home to assess the risk of whether a child may have ASD," Xu said. "This can allow families to seek therapy sooner, and improve the benefits of treatment," he said. The study found that photos of social scenes evoke the most dramatic differences in eye movement between children with and without ASD. The eye tracking patterns of children with ASD looking at the photos are scattered, versus a more focused pattern of children without ASD. "We speculate that it is due to their lack of ability to interpret and understand the relationship depicted in the social scene," Cho said. Use of the app takes up to 54 seconds, which makes it less intrusive than other tests and valuable with children with short attention spans, Cho said. The study included 32 children ranging in age from 2 to 10. Half of the children had been previously diagnosed with autism in accordance with DSM-V diagnostic criteria. The other half did not have ASD. Further research will include expanding the study to another 300 to 400 children, which is about the annual enrollment for new evaluations at Children's Guild Foundation Autism Spectrum Disorder Center at Women & Children's Hospital of Buffalo. Xu called the research "highly interdisciplinary" because of the need for computer technology, psychology for stimuli selection and medical expertise for the application of autism screening. "This technology fills the gap between someone suffering from autism to diagnosis and treatment," Xu said. Hartley-McAndrew said a lot of research is going into the use of technology to help in detecting autism. "We still don't have a completely objective measure to diagnose ASD. The diagnosis is based on expert judgment. There are tests considered the 'gold standards,' but they still are somewhat subjective," she said. One benefit of the technology is that parents could use it at home to determine if there is a need for clinical examination. And, she said, the technology crosses cultural lines, and language is not a barrier. "Nowadays, most people have a smartphone," she said.


News Article | November 11, 2016
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

What if someone invented a smartphone app that could help detect autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children as young as 2 years old? Could it lead to earlier detection and therefore better treatment? A study co-authored by a University at Buffalo undergraduate and presented at the IEEE Wireless Health conference at the National Institutes of Health last month could provide the answer. It involves the creation of an app for cell phones, tablets or computers that tracks eye movement to determine, in less than a minute, if a child is showing signs of autism spectrum disorder. Early detection of autism can dramatically improve the benefits of treatment, but often the disability is not suspected until a child enters school. “The brain continues to grow and develop after birth. The earlier the diagnosis, the better. Then we can inform families and begin therapies which will improve symptoms and outcome,” said Michelle Hartley-McAndrew, MD, clinical assistant professor of pediatrics and neurology at the Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences at UB. Hartley-McAndrew, medical director of the Children’s Guild Foundation Autism Spectrum Disorder Center at Women & Children’s Hospital of Buffalo, is a co-author of the study. “Although it’s never too late to start therapy, research demonstrates the earlier we diagnose, the better our outcomes,” said Kathy Ralabate Doody, PhD, an assistant professor in the Department of Exceptional Education at SUNY Buffalo State College and a co-author of the study. “We offer many educational interventions to help children with autism reach the same developmental milestones met by children with typical development.” The principal author is Kun Woo Cho, an undergraduate majoring in computer science and engineering. She worked with her research advisor Wenyao Xu, PhD, assistant professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering in UB’s School of Engineering and Applied Sciences. “This is an ongoing study on how to analyze ASD by monitoring gaze patterns. I used the Wasserstein metric, designed the system protocol, and visual stimuli using social scenes. This is teamwork, and I learned from my advisor and graduate students in the lab,” Cho said. “On all the research work, we are working together.” Those lab co-workers and study co-authors are Feng Lin, PhD, research scientist, and Chen Song and Xiaowei Xu, PhD, students in UB’s Department of Computer Science and Engineering. The app tracks eye movements of a child looking at pictures of social scenes — for example, those with multiple people. The eye movements of someone with ASD are often different from those of a person without autism. In the study, the app had an accuracy rating of 93.96 percent. “Right now it is a prototype. We have to consider if other neurological conditions are included, like ADD, how that will affect the outcome,” Cho said. The study, entitled “Gaze-Wasserstein: A Quantitative Screening Approach to Autism Spectrum Disorder,” was one of the top-ranked papers at the flagship Wireless Health conference this year, Xu said. Autism spectrum disorder affects 1-2 people per 1,000 worldwide. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that about 1 in 68 children in the U.S. has been diagnosed with ASD. “The beauty of the mobile app is that it can be used by parents at home to assess the risk of whether a child may have ASD,” Xu said. “This can allow families to seek therapy sooner, and improve the benefits of treatment,” he said. The study found that photos of social scenes evoke the most dramatic differences in eye movement between children with and without ASD. The eye tracking patterns of children with ASD looking at the photos are scattered, versus a more focused pattern of children without ASD. “We speculate that it is due to their lack of ability to interpret and understand the relationship depicted in the social scene,” Cho said. Use of the app takes up to 54 seconds, which makes it less intrusive than other tests and valuable with children with short attention spans, Cho said. The study included 32 children ranging in age from 2 to 10. Half of the children had been previously diagnosed with autism in accordance with DSM-V diagnostic criteria. The other half did not have ASD. Further research will include expanding the study to another 300 to 400 children, which is about the annual enrollment for new evaluations at Children’s Guild Foundation Autism Spectrum Disorder Center at Women & Children’s Hospital of Buffalo. Xu called the research “highly interdisciplinary” because of the need for computer technology, psychology for stimuli selection and medical expertise for the application of autism screening. “This technology fills the gap between someone suffering from autism to diagnosis and treatment,” Xu said. Hartley-McAndrew said a lot of research is going into the use of technology to help in detecting autism. “We still don’t have a completely objective measure to diagnose ASD. The diagnosis is based on expert judgment. There are tests considered the ‘gold standards,’ but they still are somewhat subjective,” she said. One benefit of the technology is that parents could use it at home to determine if there is a need for clinical examination. And, she said, the technology crosses cultural lines, and language is not a barrier. “Nowadays, most people have a smartphone,” she said.


BUFFALO, N.Y.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--UnitedHealthcare and Hasbro are collaborating on a national initiative to encourage young people to be more active through “exergaming.” More than 200 fifth-graders at P.S. 94 and P.S. 76 in the City of Buffalo are among the first students to receive NERF ENERGY Game Kits, which monitors and rewards students for being physically active. NERF ENERGY Game Kits, which include a NERF ENERGY Game Band activity tracker, a NERF PRO FOAM soccer ball and the NERF ENERGY RUSH mobile game, allow children to pick their own method of being active. As children participate in physical activity, they earn “energy points” that are tracked by the game band, and these points turn into screen time to play the mobile game on a smartphone or tablet. The interactive NERF ENERGY RUSH mobile game is an “endless runner” game that requires players to turn, jump and avoid obstacles to complete courses and earn power-ups to continue playing. “Hasbro has long focused on making ‘healthy, active play’ fun and engaging for children and families by leveraging the popularity and play pattern of NERF products,” said Ted Fischer, vice president, business development for Hasbro. “This collaboration enhances both companies’ commitment to positive impact on children and families.” As part of the Buffalo program, UnitedHealthcare and Hasbro are working with the City of Buffalo Public Schools and Buffalo State College to encourage students to continue to use the NERF ENERGY kits throughout the school year by hosting a school-to-school “NERF ENERGY Challenge.” Approximately 200 fifth-grade students from two schools will compete to accumulate the most energy points. “We believe a little healthy competition between our fifth-graders will reinforce the good habits these students are learning through the program, while encouraging and rewarding team success,” said Kriner Cash, Ph.D., superintendent, City of Buffalo Public Schools. Students from Buffalo State College will work with the individual schools to help track results and plan activities to support the challenge, which will run through the end of the school year. The winning school will receive a grant to purchase physical education equipment for their school. Nationwide, approximately 17 percent of children and adolescents aged two to 19 years are obese, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and nearly 30 percent of adults are obese, according to United Health Foundation’s America’s Health Rankings® Annual Report. “We believe that young people will be motivated to move more when they realize what their true activity levels are – and are rewarded for their efforts,” said Pat Celli, CEO, UnitedHealthcare Community Plan of New York. “We are grateful for the opportunity to work with schools and community-based youth organizations to provide this innovative activity program to more children.” This program builds on UnitedHealthcare’s expertise in developing practical solutions to encourage people to be more active, including the use of exergames and gamification. UnitedHealthcare and Hasbro will deliver 10,000 NERF ENERGY Game Kits to elementary schools and community organizations in several states across the country. Children ages six to 12 will be eligible to receive the NERF ENERGY Game Kit at no cost. Studies indicate that “exergaming” has the potential to reduce the growing obesity epidemic among children and adults. A study by George Washington University found exergames “spurred students to move enough to meet the recommended intensity criteria for vigorous activity” and that these games are “a useful alternative to traditional physical education.” About UnitedHealthcare UnitedHealthcare is dedicated to helping people nationwide live healthier lives by simplifying the health care experience, meeting consumer health and wellness needs, and sustaining trusted relationships with care providers. The company offers the full spectrum of health benefit programs for individuals, employers, military service members, retirees and their families, and Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries, and contracts directly with more than 1 million physicians and care professionals, and 6,000 hospitals and other care facilities nationwide. UnitedHealthcare is one of the businesses of UnitedHealth Group (NYSE: UNH), a diversified Fortune 50 health and well-being company. For more information, visit UnitedHealthcare at www.uhc.com or follow @myUHC on Twitter. About Hasbro Hasbro (NASDAQ: HAS) is a global play and entertainment company committed to Creating the World's Best Play Experiences. From toys and games to television, movies, digital gaming and consumer products, Hasbro offers a variety of ways for audiences to experience its iconic brands, including NERF, MY LITTLE PONY, TRANSFORMERS, PLAY-DOH, MONOPOLY, LITTLEST PET SHOP and MAGIC: THE GATHERING, as well as premier partner brands. The Company's Hasbro Studios and its film label, Allspark Pictures, are building its brands globally through great storytelling and content on all screens. Through its commitment to corporate social responsibility and philanthropy, Hasbro is helping to make the world a better place for children and their families. Learn more at www.hasbro.com, and follow us on Twitter (@Hasbro & @HasbroNews) and Instagram (@Hasbro). Click here to subscribe to Mobile Alerts for UnitedHealth Group.


The purpose of this study was to examine the effects that a self-monitoring strategy, plus a tactile prompting device, had upon the on-task and oral reading fluency behaviors of students with emotional and/or behavioral disabilities in the general education setting when used during whole group reading instruction. A multiple-baseline across pairs of participants design was used to evaluate the effects of the intervention. The results show that all four participants increased their on-task behavior during whole group reading instruction after being taught how to use the self-monitoring strategy, and their on-task behavior results were more similar to their peers' during the intervention condition. In addition, all students showed meaningful gains in oral reading fluency after being taught to self-monitor during whole group reading instruction when compared to baseline levels. Generalization probe data were taken during teacher-led, small group reading instruction. Although there were slight increases in performance for each of the target students after using the intervention for at least one week, these results should be interpreted with caution and should be further examined with future research. © 2012 Copyright 2012 SEBDA.


Brimkov V.E.,Buffalo State College
International Journal of Computer Mathematics | Year: 2013

In this paper we consider the following problem: given a finite set of straight-line segments S in ℝ2, find minimum in size set V of points on the segments, such that each segment of S contains at least one point in V. We call this problem guarding a set of segments (GSS). GSS is a special case of the set cover problem where the given family of subsets can be taken as a set of intersections of the straight-line segments in S. Requiring that the given subsets can be interpreted geometrically this way is a major restriction on the input, yet it has been shown that the problem is still strongly NP-complete [V.E. Brimkov, A. Leach, M. Mastroianni, and J. Wu, Guarding a set of line segments in the plane, Theor. Comput. Sci. 412 (2011), pp. 1313-1324]. In light of this result, in Brimkov et al. [Experimental studies on approximation algorithms for guarding sets of line segments, in Advances in Visual Computing, G. Bebis, R. Boyle, B. Parvin, D. Koracin, R. Chung, R. Hammoud, M. Hussain, T. Kar-Han, R. Crawfis, D. Thalmann, D. Kao, and L. Avila, eds., ISVC 2010, Part I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 6453, Springer, Berlin, 2010, pp. 592-601; V.E. Brimkov, A. Leach, M. Mastroianni, and J. Wu, Approximation algorithms for a geometric set cover problem, Discrete Appl. Math. 160 (2012), pp. 1039-1052] the GSS approximability was studied both theoretically and experimentally. Here we continue these investigations. In particular, we obtain conditions under which GSS admits good approximation. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Sobol J.J.,Buffalo State College
Policing | Year: 2010

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to use Klinger's theory of negotiated order to examine whether district crime and deviance levels exert influence on levels of police cynicism towards district residents. A secondary purpose is to discuss the policy implications for the proposed relationship between district crime and police cynicism. Design/methodology/approach: Interviews from the Project on Policing Neighborhood (POPN) and patrol district crime data were used to study whether crime and deviance levels exert influence on police cynicism of district residents (n = 574). It was hypothesized that officers would be more cynical of citizens in districts with higher rates of violent crime compared with their colleagues assigned to districts with lower rates of violent crime. Findings: The results of OLS regression analyses indicate that district violent crime rate was related to police cynicism and in the direction hypothesized, controlling for both individual and occupational covariates. Officers with more experience were also found to have lower levels of cynicism. Research limitations/implications: Items used to construct the measure of police cynicism were adapted from the POPN survey data set which asked general questions about officer perceptions of district residents. Further research and better measures are necessary in order to examine the determinants of police cynicism with implications for explaining behavior. Findings from the study might be used by policymakers in terms of police assignment and deployment to high crime areas. Originality/value: This is the first empirical attempt at examining Klinger's theory of social ecology. The study incorporates a policy argument based on the theoretical precepts and the results from the data analysis. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

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