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Buffalo, NY, United States

Sellers M.S.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Schultz A.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Basaran C.,Buffalo Lab | Kofke D.A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2010

The self-diffusion properties of several β-Sn symmetric tilt grain boundaries are examined using molecular dynamics simulations. The boundary types examined-(101), (201), (401), (310)- Σ5, and (410)-are chosen from those observed in experiment and from arbitrary Miller planes, giving a variety of tilt angles and interface properties. Planar structure factor and diffusivity profiles for each boundary are computed and a grain-boundary width, δGB, is measured from these profiles. Larger diffusive widths (δGB) are exhibited by higher excess potential energy grain boundaries. Diffusivities (DGB) in the directions parallel to the interface plane are computed and activation energies are found with the Arrhenius relation. DGB (as δGB DGB normalized by δGB) is shown to agree well with experiment. We also investigate the anisotropic diffusive behavior of the (401) grain boundary and find that the low energy grain boundary exhibits very low activation energy diffusion, due to the development of diffusive channels. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Bush M.A.,Buffalo Lab | Bush P.J.,Buffalo Lab | Sheets H.D.,Canisius College
International Journal of Legal Medicine | Year: 2011

Uniqueness of the human dentition is a fundamental premise in bitemark analysis. Despite the importance of this key aspect of bitemark methodology, systematic studies of large populations have been limited. Furthermore, there have been no investigations of the significance of the third dimension with regard to dental uniqueness. One hundred digitally scanned mandibular models were analyzed in both 2D and three dimension (3D) using Landmark software. Additionally, 500 3D maxillary and mandibular sets were investigated for determining dental match rate. Statistical analysis was performed with geometric morphometric methods. Results show that measurements in 3D preserve more information about the dentition, reducing but not eliminating random matches in a sample population of 100 mandibular dentitions. Examination of pairs of maxillary and mandibular dentitions showed a substantial number of random matches (197 maxillary, 51 mandibular, one of both maxillary and mandibular). Conclusions indicate that a zero match rate cannot be claimed for the population studied. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

Guskey M.T.,Buffalo Lab | Tsuji B.T.,Buffalo Lab | Tsuji B.T.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute
Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2010

Resistance to antibiotics among gram-positive bacteria, especially enterococci and staphylococci, has led to the need to develop new antibiotics. Vancomycin, a glycopeptide antibiotic, has been used for over 3 decades to treat serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. The increased frequency of multidrug-resistant bacteria, especially vancomycin-resistant strains, has focused interest on three new lipoglycopeptides for the treatment of infections caused by gram-positive bacteria: oritavancin, dalbavancin, and telavancin. Although oritavancin and dalbavancin are still in development, telavancin received approval from the United States Food and Drug Administration in September 2009 for treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections. Structurally different from vancomycin and teicoplanin, all three lipoglycopeptides have greater potency and less potential for development of resistant organisms. Of particular importance is the activity of oritavancin, dalbavancin, and telavancin against vancomycin-resistant organisms. In addition, the pharmacokinetic properties of these new antimicrobials substantially differ from those of vancomycin. Both oritavancin and dalbavancin have long terminal half-lives, which may allow for infrequent dosing. In addition, oritavancin is primarily cleared through hepatic pathways, which makes it potentially useful in patients with renal compromise. In animal models, these new lipoglycopeptides were effective in treating serious gram-positive infections, including complicated skin and skin structure infections, endocarditis, bacteremia, and pneumonia; in clinical studies, however, efficacy was shown only in complicated skin and skin structure infections for all three agents. According to preliminary data, the adverse-effect profile of these lipoglycopeptides is generally similar to that of drugs currently used to treat severe gram-positive infections. However, further evaluation and monitoring is necessary as more patients are exposed to these agents. As antimicrobial resistance continues to increase worldwide, the lipoglycopeptides may provide clinicians with a useful antimicrobial in the continued fight against multidrug-resistant gram-positive bacteria.

Mistriotis P.,Buffalo Lab | Andreadis S.T.,Buffalo Lab | Andreadis S.T.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Andreadis S.T.,Buffalo Center of Excellence
Tissue Engineering - Part B: Reviews | Year: 2013

The adult body harbors powerful reservoirs of stem cells that enable tissue regeneration under homeostatic conditions or in response to disease or injury. The hair follicle (HF) is a readily accessible mini organ within the skin and contains stem cells from diverse developmental origins that were shown to have surprisingly broad differentiation potential. In this review, we discuss the biology of the HF with particular emphasis on the various stem cell populations residing within the tissue. We summarize the existing knowledge on putative HF stem cell markers, the differentiation potential, and technologies to isolate and expand distinct stem cell populations. We also discuss the potential of HF stem cells for drug and gene delivery, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. We propose that the abundance of stem cells with broad differentiation potential and the ease of accessibility makes the HF an ideal source of stem cells for gene and cell therapies. © 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Mesmer B.L.,Buffalo Lab | Bloebaum C.L.,Buffalo Lab
Safety Science | Year: 2012

The importance of the incorporation of personal communication devices in emergency evacuation simulators will be discussed. Four case studies are examined to identify usage statistics and human behavior when using the devices in an emergency. The case studies are: 9/11 World Trade Center Attacks, London train bombings, Virginia Tech shooting and United Flight #93. The case studies' findings are implemented into the Vacate evacuation simulator, which uses particle swarm optimization to mimic human pedestrian behavior. The physical actions of using a device, as well as the reaction to the information transmitted during usage, are examined. Findings show that the effects of the personal communication devices can affect individuals that are close to the user of the device, as well as those not in the local vicinity of the user. These effects, combined with the rapid mainstream acceptance of communication technologies, justify the implementation of personal communication devices into evacuation simulators. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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