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Chuang J.-Y.,China Medical University at Taichung | Chang P.-C.,Asia University, Taiwan | Shen Y.-C.,China Medical University at Taichung | Lin C.,China Medical University at Taichung | And 8 more authors.

Increasing evidence suggests that inflammatory processes in the central nervous system that are mediated by microglial activation play a key role in neurodegeneration Fisetin, a plant flavonol commonly found in fruits and vegetables, is frequently added to nutritional supplements due to its antioxidant properties. In the present study, treatment with fisetin inhibited microglial cell migration and ROS (reactive oxygen species) production. Treatment with fisetin also effectively inhibited LPS plus IFN-γ-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in microglial cells. Furthermore, fisetin also reduced expressions of iNOS and NO by stimulation of peptidoglycan, the major component of the Gram-positive bacterium cell wall. Fisetin also inhibited the enhancement of LPS/IFN-γ- or peptidoglycan-induced inflammatory mediator IL (interlukin)-1 β expression. Besides the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of fisetin, our study also elucidates the manner in fisetin-induced an endogenous anti-oxidative enzyme HO (heme oxygenase)-1 expression. Moreover, the regulatory molecular mechanism of fisetin-induced HO-1 expression operates through the PI-3 kinase/AKT and p38 signaling pathways in microglia. Notably, fisetin also significantly attenuated inflammation-related microglial activation and coordination deficit in mice in vivo. These findings suggest that fisetin may be a candidate agent for the development of therapies for inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases. Source

Shiao C.-C.,Saint Marys Hospital Luodong | Shiao C.-C.,Saint Marys College | Wu P.-C.,Mackay Memorial Hospital | Huang T.-M.,National Taiwan University Hospital | And 8 more authors.
Critical Care

Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been a global health epidemic problem with soaring incidence, increased long-term risks for multiple comorbidities and mortality, as well as elevated medical costs. Despite the improvement of patient outcomes following the advancements in preventive and therapeutic strategies, the mortality rates among critically ill patients with AKI remain as high as 40-60 %. The distant organ injury, a direct consequence of deleterious systemic effects, following AKI is an important explanation for this phenomenon. To date, most evidence of remote organ injury in AKI is obtained from animal models. Whereas the observations in humans are from a limited number of participants in a relatively short follow-up period, or just focusing on the cytokine levels rather than clinical solid outcomes. The remote organ injury is caused with four underlying mechanisms: (1) "classical" pattern of acute uremic state; (2) inflammatory nature of the injured kidneys; (3) modulating effect of AKI of the underlying disease process; and (4) healthcare dilemma. While cytokines/chemokines, leukocyte extravasation, oxidative stress, and certain channel dysregulation are the pathways involving in the remote organ damage. In the current review, we summarized the data from experimental studies to clinical outcome studies in the field of organ crosstalk following AKI. Further, the long-term consequences of distant organ-system, including liver, heart, brain, lung, gut, bone, immune system, and malignancy following AKI with temporary dialysis were reviewed and discussed. © 2015 Shiao et al. Source

An adjuvant for rapid proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro is provided to overcome the problem of low cell amplification efficiency of human mesenchymal stem cells in a culture process. The adjuvant added for the culture of human mesenchymal stem cells includes at least one antioxidant, and a basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). The adjuvant is added into a medium containing the human mesenchymal stem cells, and the culture takes place in a normal oxygen environment (21% oxygen tension), and the cells are divided rapidly, and the cell cycle at synthesis phase (S phase) percentage is increased to reduce ageing and improve differentiation potential. The adjuvant not only amplifies human mesenchymal stem cells rapidly to harvest the growth factor, but also maintains the characteristics of the multifunction of stem cells for the purposes of culturing and amplifying the human mesenchymal stem cells.

Chiang J.-K.,Foundation Medicine | Koo M.,Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation | Kao Y.-H.,Tainan Municipal Hospital
Journal of Palliative Care

This prospective study aimed to develop an individualized prognostic tool for predicting the survival probability at any given point for a hospice patient with advanced cancer. A total of 286 patients with advanced cancer were included in the study. Median observational time was 18 days (range: 1 to 60 days). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed that faster heart rate (hazard ratio [HR]=1.01), jaundice (HR=2.32), poorer performance status (HR=2.01), and antifungal treatment (HR=1.62) were independent predictors of shorter survival time. Patients with infections who received aminoglycoside treatments (HR=0.45) were associated with longer survival times. Based on this model, we could construct a covariate-adjusted individualized survival curve for a given patient according to his or her clinical condition. This user-friendly tool for estimating the survival probability of patients with advanced cancer in hospice settings could facilitate clinical decision making and medical care planning. Source

Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation | Date: 2015-05-11

The present invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising mesenchymal stem cells, a hyaluronan and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. The pharmaceutical composition is used for the treatment of the joint disease. The mesenchymal stem cells in the composition are at least one selected from the group consisting of infra-patellar fat pad stromal cells, bone marrow stem cells, Whartons jelly stem cells and adipose derived stem cells. The concentration of the hyaluronan is in a range from 25% (v/v) to 75% (v/v). The present invention further provides a method for treating a joint disease, comprising a step of administrating a composition containing mesenchymal stem cells, a hyaluronan and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier to an injured joint tissue of a subject.

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