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Chen P.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Lin T.-H.,Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital Taichung Branch | Lin T.-H.,China Medical University at Taichung | Cheng H.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Tang C.-H.,China Medical University at Taichung
Carcinogenesis | Year: 2012

Nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV or CCN3) is a secreted matrix-associated protein that belongs to the CCN gene family and is involved in many cellular functions, including growth, differentiation and adhesion. The effect of CCN3 on human prostate cancer cells, however, is unknown. Here, we have shown that CCN3 increased cell migration and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in prostate cancer cells. In addition, expression of CCN3 was positively correlated with both cell migration and ICAM-1 expression in human prostate cancer cells. CCN3 activated a signal transduction pathway that included αvβ3 integrin, integrin-linked kinase (ILK), Akt and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). Reagents that inhibit specific components of this pathway each diminished the ability of CCN3 to effect cell migration and ICAM-1 expression. Moreover, CCN3 increased binding of p65 to an NF-κB-binding element in the ICAM-1 promoter. Finally, knockdown of CCN3 expression markedly inhibited cell migration, tumor growth in bone and bone metastasis. Taken together, our results indicate that CCN3 enhances the migration of prostate cancer cells by increasing ICAM-1 expression through a signal transduction pathway that involves αvβ3 integrin, ILK, Akt and NF-κB. CCN3 thus represents a promising new target for treating prostate cancer. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source


Yu H.-S.,China Medical University at Taichung | Lin T.-H.,Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital Taichung Branch | Lin T.-H.,China Medical University at Taichung | Tang C.-H.,China Medical University at Taichung
Prostate | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men and shows a predilection for metastasis to the bone. Bradykinin (BK) is an inflammatory mediator, and shows elevated levels in regions of severe injury and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Bradykinin is associated with migration of prostate cancer cells. METHODS Cancer cells migration activity was examined using the Transwell assay. The c-Src and PKCδ phosphorylation was examined by using Western blot method. The qPCR was used to examine the mRNA expression of metalloproteinase. A transient transfection protocol was used to examine NF-κB activity. RESULTS We found that bradykinin increased the chemomigration and the expression of MMP-9 of human prostate cancer cells. Bradykinin-mediated chemomigration and metalloproteinase expression was attenuated by PKCδ inhibitor (rottlerin), PKCδ siRNA, c-Src inhibitor (PP2) and c-Src mutant. Activations of PKCδ, c-Src and NF-κB pathways after bradykinin treatment was demonstrated, and bradykinin-induced expression of metalloproteinase and chemomigration activity was inhibited by the specific inhibitor and mutant of PKCδ, c-Src, and NF-κB cascades. CONCLUSIONS This study showed for the first time that the bradykinin mediates migration of human prostate cancer cells. One of the mechanisms underlying bradykinin directed migration was transcriptional up-regulation of MMP-9 and activation of B2 receptor, PKCδ, c-Src, and NF-κB pathways. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Li C.-J.,Tzu Chi University | Chu C.-Y.,Tzu Chi University | Huang L.-H.,National Yang Ming University | Wang M.-H.,Tzu Chi University | And 3 more authors.
Cancer Letters | Year: 2012

Cisplatin is an anticancer agent that is effective against several types of cancer, including gastric cancer. However, its therapeutic application is limited by its toxicity in normal tissues and complications caused in patients. In this study, we attempted to clarify how triptolide, an active component extracted from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine . Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TWHF), enhances cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in gastric cancer SC-M1 cells. After low-dose combined treatments with triptolide and cisplatin, a decrease in viability with a concomitant increase in apoptosis was observed in SC-M1 cells but not in normal cells. Apoptosis induced by the combined treatments was accompanied by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome . c. Triptolide increased the cisplatin-induced activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 and the downstream cleavage of PARP in SC-M1 cells. Results of these . in vitro experiments indicated that triptolide enhanced cytotoxicity in cisplatin-treated SC-M1 cells and that this effect is mediated by apoptosis through a mitochondrial pathway. Furthermore, using a SCID mouse xenograft model, we demonstrated that the combined treatment completely suppressed tumor growth via down-regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression without significant side effects. These results suggest that lower concentrations of cisplatin and triptolide used in combination may produce a synergistic anticancer effect that warrants further investigation for its potential clinical applications. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Tu M.-C.,Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital Taichung Branch | Tu M.-C.,Chang Gung University | Chang W.-N.,Chang Gung University | Lui C.-C.,Chang Gung University | And 6 more authors.
Neurology Asia | Year: 2012

Background: Reports on the aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4-IgG) status for cognitive performance and neuroimaging correlations are limited in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS) literature. Methods: Cognitive results of 19 MS and 15 NMO patients were compared with 47 agematched controls. Apparent diffusion coeffi cient (ADC) values were used to delineate gray matter and white matter damages and correlate with neuropsychological results. Results: Verbal memory test showed signifi cant differences between MS and NMO in the late registration, early and delay recall (p<0.05), while their retention rates were even. In MS, ADC values were signifi cantly elevated in the dorsolateral prefrontal and occipital gray matter which was in contrast with NMO group that showed elevation in the dorsolateral prefrontal gray matter and parieto-occcipital white matter. AQP4-IgG status exerted a limited effect on ADC values and neuropsychological results. Conclusions: Verbal memory test might be helpful in differentiating NMO and MS. ADC values can be used as a surrogate marker for tissue injury in NMO and MS since they were in line with the cognition scores. Anatomical regions with elevated ADC values were different in NMO and MS. Source


Lin T.-H.,China Medical University at Taichung | Liu H.-H.,Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital Taichung Branch | Tsai T.-H.,Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital Taichung Branch | Chen C.-C.,Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital Taichung Branch | And 6 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects | Year: 2013

Background Chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), belongs to the CC chemokine family which is associated with the disease status and outcomes of cancers. Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men and shows a predilection for metastasis to the bone. However, the effect of CCL2 on human prostate cancer cells is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the role of CCL2 in integrin expression and migratory activity in prostate cancers. Methods Prostate cancer migration was examined using Transwell, wound healing, and invasion assay. The PKCδ and c-Src phosphorylations were examined by using western blotting. The qPCR was used to examine the mRNA expression of integrins. A transient transfection protocol was used to examine AP-1 activity. Results Stimulation of prostate cancer cell lines (PC3, DU145, and LNCaP) induced migration and expression of integrin αvβ3. Treatment of cells with αvβ3 antibody or siRNA abolished CCL2-increased cell migration. CCL2-increased migration and integrin expression were diminished by CCR2 but not by CCR4 inhibitors, suggesting that the CCR2 receptor is involved in CCL2-promoted prostate cancer migration. CCL2 activated a signal transduction pathway that includes PKCδ, c-Src, and AP-1. Reagents that inhibit specific components of this pathway each diminished the ability of CCL2 to effect cell migration and integrin expression. Conclusions Interaction between CCL2 and CCR2 enhances migration of prostate cancer cells through an increase in αvβ3 integrin production. General significance CCL2 is a critical factor of prostate cancer metastasis. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

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