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Gombos E.,Eötvös Loránd University | Barkacs K.,Eötvös Loránd University | Felfoldi T.,Eötvös Loránd University | Vertes C.,Ferrate Treatment Technologies Central Europe Ltd. | And 3 more authors.
Microchemical Journal | Year: 2013

This paper presents the effect of ferrate-Fe(VI) on municipal secondary effluents derived from two different wastewater treatment plants. Experiments were carried out in laboratory using Fe(VI) and chlorine to compare the performance of these reagents regarding their organic matter and reactive phosphate compounds removal, and the formation of adsorbable organic haloids (AOX) as by-products. Additionally, the most probable number (MPN) of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria was also determined. In every case for 100% bacterial inactivation a low Fe(VI) concentration (5mgL-1) was enough and by this concentration 40% chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 20% total organic carbon (TOC) removal could be obtained on average. Higher Fe(VI) concentration (7-15mgL-1) resulted in an even higher organics reduction (depending on the water matrix up to 79% COD and 45% TOC removal). Applying chlorine treatment also resulted in a 99.9% inactivation, but only an approximately 30% COD and 2% TOC removal could be achieved at higher concentrations. Fe(VI) could also effectively diminish the reactive phosphate concentration in the investigated secondary effluents. Monitoring AOX concentration during Fe(VI)-treatment, it could be stated that AOX formation was in linear relationship with the applied Fe(VI) concentration, but at higher than about 10mgL-1 Fe(VI) concentration this increase became much less than at lower Fe(VI) concentration. Chlorine treatment also resulted in AOX formation, but using a low Fe(VI) concentration, which was already enough for 99.9% bacterial inactivation, the AOX concentration rise was lower than in the chlorine process. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Szilagyi N.,Organica Technologies Inc. | Szilagyi N.,Budapest University of Technology and Economics | Kovacs R.,Organica Technologies Inc. | Kenyeres I.,Organica Technologies Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Water Practice and Technology | Year: 2012

As more and more wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) arrive to a point in their lifecycles when their original capacities are not sufficient anymore, the demand for good WWTP retrofitting solutions becomes increasingly critical. One of the typical problems is the suspended solids overload of secondary clarifiers, which is one of the main concerns at the South Pest WWTP as well. Pilot scale studies were carried out at the WWTP with a biofilm based technology applying biofilm carriers imitating plant root structures in order to characterize the potentials of clarifier TSS load reduction while maintaining the existing biodegradation performance of the activated sludge stage. The research demonstrated that the clarifier load can be reduced by more than 90%, while the original biodegradation performance of the system does not decrease. In addition to this, it was demonstrated that the biomass amount in the reactors can be increased substantially opening potentials for further biodegradation capacity. © IWA Publishing 2012.


Jobbagy A.,Budapest University of Technology and Economics | Palko Gy.,Budapest University of Technology and Economics | Weinpel T.,Budapest Sewage Works Ltd. | Mako M.,Budapest Sewage Works Ltd.
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2012

In order to reduce the pollution load of the Danube, the North-Budapest Wastewater Treatment Plant has been upgraded to enhanced nitrogen removal by establishing a new activated sludge treatment line and modifying the existing unit for nitrification and denitrification. As both the influent flow rate and the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD 5) and total suspended solids (TSS) concentration levels remained far below the design values, setting one fourth of the reactor volume out of operation in the Old Line, and operating the nitrification reactor of the New Line with part-time aeration proved to be possible. Analytical data as well as simulation studies supported the advantage of the intermittent-aeration process in efficient N-removal. However, the lengths of the aerated periods have to be increased with decreasing temperature, and thereby effluent total nitrogen (TN) concentration can increase due to decreasing denitrification efficiency. Potential occurrence of low-dissolved oxygen (DO) bulking should be hindered through applying an efficient anoxic selector system. © IWA Publishing 2012.


Dobor J.,Eötvös Loránd University | Varga M.,Eötvös Loránd University | Yao J.,Hubei University | Chen H.,Hubei University | And 2 more authors.
Microchemical Journal | Year: 2010

This paper presents a new sample preparation procedure for determination of selected acidic pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, and diclofenac) in sewage sludge using microwave assisted solvent extraction, dispersive matrix extraction (DME) followed by the conventionally applied solid phase extraction (SPE), derivatization, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The recoveries calculated from analytical data of spiked sludge samples changed in the range of 80-105% ± 15% for the four pharmaceuticals in mixed and activated sludge depending on the efficiency of the clean-up procedure. The measured concentration values of ibuprofen and naproxen were identical in the mixed and the activated sludge samples. However, ketoprofen and diclofenac showed about twice as high concentration in activated sludge than in the mixed one independently of the applied extraction method. The typical concentration ranges of ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen and diclofenac in sewage sludge were 10-30 ng/g, 30-50 ng/g, 50-130 ng/g, and 50-140 ng/g respectively. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Juvancz Z.,Universitas Budensis | Bodane-Kendrovics R.,Universitas Budensis | Beleznay P.,Balint Analitics Ltd. | Erdelyi I.,Budapest Sewage Works Ltd. | Klujber-Mohr M.,VITUKI Plc.
Chromatographia | Year: 2010

1,4-Dichlorobenzene is a frequently used lavatory deodorant although it has strong endocrine disrupting and potential carcinogenic effects. A large amount (approximately 15,000 tonnes annually worldwide) of this compound is released into the environment. This paper deals with the determination of 1,4-dichlorobenzene in a variety of environmental matrices. Various extraction and concentration methods such as charcoal absorbtion tubes and headspace sampling were applied. Sensitive and selective ion monitoring GC-MS measurements were used for determination. Significant concentrations of the compound have been identified in lavatory air, waste water, waste water sludge and human breast milk. © 2010 Vieweg+Teubner Verlag | Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH.


Kardos L.,Corvinus University of Budapest | JuhaSz A.,Corvinus University of Budapest | Palko G.Y.,Budapest Sewage Works Ltd | OlaH J.,Budapest Sewage Works Ltd | And 2 more authors.
Applied Ecology and Environmental Research | Year: 2011

Biogas may be produced from communal sewage sludges by anaerobic decomposition. To follow up the decomposition processes enzyme activity tests have been applied. It is advantageous to use these activity tests if there are frequent substrate-, or specific organic matter load changes in the digesting towers. For describing the total activity of the cells, dehydrogenase-, while for following up the frequent substrate changes protease-, lipase- and cellulase enzyme activity analyses have been carried out. No internationally accepted standards are available for testing the enzyme activity of sewage sludges. Thus, in our experimental work we modified the enzyme activity analyses described earlier in the special literature for the tests of other than sewage sludge samples. Our enzyme activity tests can be completed quickly and at a relative low cost, thus it is possible to use them in generally equipped wastewater treatment laboratories also. © 2011, ALÖ KI Kft., Budapest, Hungary.


Tarjanyi-Szikora S.,Budapest Sewage Works Ltd. | Olah J.,Budapest Sewage Works Ltd. | Mako M.,Budapest Sewage Works Ltd. | Palko G.,Budapest Sewage Works Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
Microchemical Journal | Year: 2013

Biofilms grown on three different carriers (Biolite™, Perl™ and zeolite) in municipal wastewater were examined and their biochemical properties like dehydrogenase enzyme activity (DHA) and nutrient removal efficiency were studied. The artificial Biolite™ and Perl™ carriers were produced from ceramics and glass waste, respectively. The physico-chemical properties of carriers such as specific surface area, composition, methylene blue and protein adsorption capacities were also measured. According to DHA values, two different colonization periods were identified for each carrier. During the first 45 days, DHA values were between 0.1 and 0.9. mg TPF/g dry carrier and varied together with the chemical oxygen demand and total Kjeldahl nitrogen ratio of the influent wastewater. During this period, the biofilm on Biolite™ had more intensive dehydrogenase enzyme activity than those grown on Perl™ and zeolite. After the 45th day, the DHA values increased and were about three times higher on each carrier. In both colonization periods, DHA values were higher in the case of biofilm grown on artificial carriers than on zeolite. Biofilms attached to carriers and activated sludge were compared and related to total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiencies during municipal wastewater treating experiments. Nutrient removal was more effective in the case of biofilms grown on artificial carriers. Biofilm on Perl™ carrier was very successful in organic matter removal, too. The highest total carbon and NH4+N removal efficiencies in the case of activated sludge indicated active nitrification process, while biofilms produced more effective TN and TP removal than activated sludge. Since the oxygen diffusion into the biofilm layer is limited to about 40μm, as described in a number of studies, both aerobic and anaerobic transforming processes can occur, which implies that denitrification and nitrification can be present at the same time, meanwhile in the case of activated sludge the aerobic converting processes are predominant. Among the carriers-on the basis of the biofilm DHA and TN removal data-the artificial ones seem to be more promising than natural zeolite for wastewater treatment technologies. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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