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Lewisburg, PA, United States

Bucknell University is a private liberal arts college located alongside the West Branch Susquehanna River in the town of Lewisburg, in central Pennsylvania, United States. The university consists of the College of Arts and science, School of Management, and the College of Engineering. Bucknell was founded in 1846, and features programs in the arts, humanities, science, social science, engineering, management, education, and music, as well as programs and pre-professional advising that prepare students for study in law and medicine. It has almost 50 majors and over 60 minors.It is primarily an undergraduate school , and 150 graduate students on the campus. Students come from all 50 states and from more than 66 countries. Bucknell has nearly 200 student organizations and a large Greek presence. The school's mascot is Bucky the Bison and the school is a member of the Patriot League in NCAA Division I athletics. Wikipedia.

Elevated levels of maternal androgens in avian eggs affect numerous traits, including oxidative stress. However, current studies disagree as to whether prenatal androgen exposure enhances or ameliorates oxidative stress. Here, we tested how prenatal testosterone exposure affects oxidative stress in female domestic chickens (Gallus gallus) during the known oxidative challenge of an acute stressor. Prior to incubation, eggs were either injected with an oil vehicle or 5 ng testosterone. At either 17 or 18 days post-hatch, several oxidative stress markers were assessed from blood taken before and after a 20 min acute stressor, as well as following a 25 min recovery from the stressor. We found that, regardless of yolk treatment, during both stress and recovery all individuals were in a state of oxidative stress, with elevated levels of oxidative damage markers accompanied by a reduced total antioxidant capacity. In addition, testosterone-exposed individuals exhibited poorer DNA damage repair efficiencies in comparison with control individuals. Our work suggests that while yolk androgens do not alter oxidative stress directly, they may impair mechanisms of oxidative damage repair. Source

Myers K.P.,Bucknell University
Physiology and Behavior | Year: 2013

Rats learn to prefer flavors associated with postingestive effects of nutrients. The physiological signals underlying this postingestive reward are unknown. We have previously shown that rats readily learn to prefer a flavor that was consumed early in a multi-flavored meal when glucose is infused intragastrically (IG), suggesting rapid postingestive reward onset. The present experiments investigate the timing of postingestive fat reward, by providing distinctive flavors in the first and second halves of meals accompanied by IG fat infusion. Learning stronger preference for the earlier or later flavor would indicate when the rewarding postingestive effects are sensed. Rats consumed sweetened, calorically-dilute flavored solutions accompanied by IG high-fat infusion (+ sessions) or water (- sessions). Each session included an "Early" flavor for 8. min followed by a "Late" flavor for 8. min. Learned preferences were then assessed in two-bottle tests (no IG infusion) between Early(+) vs. Early(-), Late(+) vs. Late(-), Early(+) vs. Late(+), and Early(-) vs. Late(-). Rats only preferred Late(+), not Early(+), relative to their respective (-) flavors. In a second experiment rats trained with a higher fat concentration learned to prefer Early(+) but more strongly preferred Late(+). Learned preferences were evident when rats were tested deprived or recently satiated. Unlike with glucose, ingested fat appears to produce a slower-onset rewarding signal, detected later in a meal or after its termination, becoming more strongly associated with flavors towards the end of the meal. This potentially contributes to enhanced liking for dessert foods, which persists even when satiated. © 2013. Source

Allers K.N.,Bucknell University | Liu M.C.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2013

We present a near-infrared (0.9-2.4 μm) spectroscopic study of 73 field ultracool dwarfs having spectroscopic and/or kinematic evidence of youth (10-300 Myr). Our sample is composed of 48 low-resolution (R 100) spectra and 41 moderate-resolution spectra (R ≳ 750-2000). First, we establish a method for spectral typing M5-L7 dwarfs at near-IR wavelengths that is independent of gravity. We find that both visual and index-based classification in the near-IR provides consistent spectral types with optical spectral types, though with a small systematic offset in the case of visual classification at J and K band. Second, we examine features in the spectra of 10 Myr ultracool dwarfs to define a set of gravity-sensitive indices based on FeH, VO, K I, Na I, and H-band continuum shape. We then create an index-based method for classifying the gravities of M6-L5 dwarfs that provides consistent results with gravity classifications from optical spectroscopy. Our index-based classification can distinguish between young and dusty objects. Guided by the resulting classifications, we propose a set of low-gravity spectral standards for the near-IR. Finally, we estimate the ages corresponding to our gravity classifications. © 2013 The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Kinnaman T.C.,Bucknell University
Ecological Economics | Year: 2011

Recent advances in drilling technology have allowed for the profitable extraction of natural gas from deep underground shale rock formations. Several reports sponsored by the gas industry have estimated the economic effects of the shale gas extraction on incomes, employment, and tax revenues. None of these reports has been published in an economics journal and therefore have not been subjected to the peer review process. Yet these reports may be influential to the formation of public policy. This commentary provides written reviews of several studies purporting to estimate the economic impact of gas extraction from shale beds. Due to questionable assumptions, the economic impacts estimated in these reports are very likely overstated. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Dearborn D.C.,Bucknell University | Kark S.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Conservation Biology | Year: 2010

In a time of increasing urbanization, the fundamental value of conserving urban biodiversity remains controversial. How much of a fixed budget should be spent on conservation in urban versus nonurban landscapes? The answer should depend on the goals that drive our conservation actions, yet proponents of urban conservation often fail to specify the motivation for protecting urban biodiversity. This is an important shortcoming on several fronts, including a missed opportunity to make a stronger appeal to those who believe conservation biology should focus exclusively on more natural, wilder landscapes. We argue that urban areas do offer an important venue for conservation biology, but that we must become better at choosing and articulating our goals. We explored seven possible motivations for urban biodiversity conservation: Preserving local biodiversity, creating stepping stones to nonurban habitat, understanding and facilitating responses to environmental change, conducting environmental education, providing ecosystem services, fulfilling ethical responsibilities, and improving human well-being. To attain all these goals, challenges must be faced that are common to the urban environment, such as localized pollution, disruption of ecosystem structure, and limited availability of land. There are, however, also challenges specific only to particular goals, meaning that different goals will require different approaches and actions. This highlights the importance of specifying the motivations behind urban biodiversity conservation. If the goals are unknown, progress cannot be assessed. © 2009 Society for Conservation Biology. Source

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