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Bergen, Norway

The high reliability, accuracy and calibration sustainability of BTG optical consistency transmitters offers the papermaker the opportunity to maximize fiber yield and optimize fiber blending to accurately manage the number one cost contributor, fiber. Poor consistency control often results in tissue makers needing to run at a higher basis weight target to ensure they meet the final sheet properties when producing the sheet at the low end of the target range. By reducing the variability, there is an opportunity to lower the basis weight target. Improved consistency control allows the mill to reduce the basis weight target from 18 to 17.9 gsm. This transmitter can also be used on either the Krofta or DAF process to maximize fiber yield through a closed loop polymer control strategy. This in turn minimizes the loss of fiber and fines to the sewer. Source

Douglas D.J.T.,University of Leeds | Benton T.G.,University of Leeds | Vickery J.A.,Bto Inc.
Bird Study

Capsule: No strong determinants of patch selection were found in set-aside; in cereal fields tractor tramlines were favoured. Aims: To examine and compare the factors influencing patch selection by Yellowhammers foraging for nestling food in set-aside and cereals. Methods: Observations of adults provisioning nestlings were made at 21 nests on lowland mixed farmland in northeast Scotland. Vegetation measurements and arthropod abundance from mapped foraging sites were compared with control sites within the same habitats. Results: In set-aside, no differences in vegetation and arthropods were found between foraging and control sites. In cereal fields, tractor tramlines with sparser vegetation than cropped areas were favoured. Conclusions: Set-aside typically offers a heterogeneous sward and birds foraging within this may be less restricted in their choice of accessible foraging sites, relative to the dense swards of intensively managed cereal crops. Recent policy changes have resulted in the reconversion of set-aside to more intensive cereal cropping; this may reduce the availability of beneficial foraging habitat for farmland birds. © 2010 British Trust for Ornithology. Source

Douglas D.J.T.,RSPB | Bellamy P.E.,RSPB | Pearce-Higgins J.W.,RSPB | Pearce-Higgins J.W.,Bto Inc.
Bird Study

Capsule No evidence for sustained declines in abundance or re-distribution of two key upland bird species on a wind farm site in the first three years of operation. Aims To describe changes in the abundance and distribution of birds on an upland wind farm during the first three years of operation. Methods Surveys to map the distribution of breeding birds were conducted at the wind farm and a nearby control site in 2006 and 2009. Results Only Willow Ptarmigan (Red Grouse) Lagopus lagopus scotica and European Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria were sufficiently numerous for analysis. There was no significant difference in the change in abundance of either species between the wind farm and control site, and no evidence that changes in the species' distribution were related to wind farm infrastructure. Conclusions Upland wind farms may not necessarily result in declines in bird populations in the operational phase. Similar studies across a range of sites should be conducted and published to examine the factors that determine the response of birds to particular developments. © 2011 British Trust for Ornithology. Source

There is considerable interest in understanding how management may help species and populations cope with climate change (climate change adaptation). I used a population model describing the demography of a southern range-margin European Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria population vulnerable to climate change to assess the potential benefits associated with site-based adaptation management. Two forms of management were simulated: (1) counteracting management to reduce the severity of the negative climate change impacts, simulated by increasing tipulid (cranefly) abundance, and (2) compensatory management to increase populations through an alternative mechanism, simulated by manipulating nest and chick predation rates. A 1°C rise was estimated to require a doubling of cranefly abundance, or a 35% increase in nest and chick survival rates, to maintain a stable population. For a 2°C rise, a four-fold increase in craneflies or an 80% increase in survival rates would be required for population stability. A model based on likely realistic estimates of the magnitude of benefit associated with both adaptation management options showed that combined, they may significantly reduce the severity of population decline and risk of extinction associated with a relatively large increase in temperature of 5.8°C above 1960-90 levels. Site-based adaptation management may therefore increase the resistance of Golden Plovers to some degree of future climate change. This model framework for informing climate change adaptation decisions should be developed for other species and habitats. © 2011 British Trust for Ornithology. Journal compilation © 2011 British Ornithologists' Union. Source

Records of the Great White Egret Ardea alba have increased significantly in Britain in the last 20 years.The species now occurs throughout the year in some parts of the country, and is sufficiently numerous for a population trend based on WeBS Core Counts to be produced.The source of the increase is probably the expanding populations in neighbouring countries, particularly the Netherlands - where there is now an established breeding population and 2,000+ wintering individuals - and France.The species' habitat requirements are reviewed in relation to research findings from the Netherlands and elsewhere, which may be relevant to the continued expansion of the British population. Following successful breeding by Great White Egrets on the Somerset Levels in 2012, further breeding attempts in Britain are likely, especially in response to appropriate wetland habitat creation and sympathetic management, and particularly through landscape-scale initiatives. Source

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