Zhou Y.R.,BT in Ireland |
Smith K.,BT in Ireland |
Weatherhead J.,BT in Ireland |
Weir P.,BT in Ireland |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Lightwave Technology | Year: 2017
In high speed optical transmission networks, OSNR is the key optical performance parameter. We propose a novel technique for non-intrusive in-band OSNR derivation based on real-time pre-FEC BER measurement from optical transponders, which exploits pre-measured and calibrated pre-FEC BER versus OSNR curves and multiple modulation formats to ensure accurate OSNR derivation over a wide range. We report a successful field trial of this novel in-band OSNR technique, in which we have demonstrated and verified the accurate OSNR derivation over both a 359km field trial link and a live 727km flexible grid optical link using 64GBaud flexible rate optical transponders with modulation formats 100G DP - QPSK, 200G DP - 16QAM and 200G DP - QPSK. Compared with standard signal ‘on’ and ‘off’ measurement, an OSNR accuracy within ±1dB was achieved for all 3 modulation formats. We also investigated the impact of fiber nonlinearity at different signal powers on the accuracy of this technique. It is shown that this novel technique provides reliable and accurate OSNR derivation for the optical signals operating in normal power regime making it suitable for practical network applications. IEEE
Diver A.J.,BT in Ireland |
Hill C.,BT in Ireland
Annals of Plastic Surgery | Year: 2011
A unique case of congenital nasal septal deformity is reported with a chronological summary of literature pertaining to congenital nasal defects. © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Norton B.,Dublin Institute of Technology |
Eames P.C.,Loughborough University |
Mallick T.K.,Heriot - Watt University |
Huang M.J.,BT in Ireland |
And 3 more authors.
Solar Energy | Year: 2011
Recent research in Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) is reviewed with the emphases on a range of key systems whose improvement would be likely to lead to improved solar energy conversion efficiency and/or economic viability. These include invertors, concentrators and thermal management systems. Advances in techniques for specific aspects of systems design, installation and operation are also discussed. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.
Mac An tSaoir S.,BT in Ireland |
Ward F.,BT in Ireland
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010
SmartFresh (1-MCP) prevents the ripening of fruit by blocking ethylene receptors. Bramley's apple seedling is highly sensitive to ethylene. SmartFresh has been shown to work under local barn storage conditions up until December (three months) but for an economic return on the use of SmartFresh, a much longer storage period is required. Therefore in 2004 a large scale experiment was set in which bins of Bramleys were treated with SmartFresh (7 or 14 days after picking), +/-fungicide, or untreated and stored in non-temperature regulated barns, or refrigerated at 4.3°C. The apples were sub-sampled at monthly intervals from December 2004 through March 2005. Over the storage period SmartFresh decreased the loss of quality as recorded by pressure tests, weight loss and colour loss. SmartFresh treated apples in cold storage were of much higher quality in all respects over Barn stored apples. Where the application of SmartFresh was delayed from seven to fourteen days after picking its effectiveness was reduced across all parameters measured.
Denieffe K.,BT in Ireland |
Mahony C.M.O.,BT in Ireland |
Maguire P.D.,BT in Ireland |
Gahan D.,Dublin City University |
Hopkins M.B.,Dublin City University
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics | Year: 2011
Accurate measurement of ion current density and ion energy distributions (IEDs) is often critical for plasma processes in both industrial and research settings. Retarding field energy analysers (RFEAs) have been used to measure IEDs because they are considered accurate, relatively simple and cost effective. However, their usage for critical measurement of ion current density is less common due to difficulties in estimating the proportion of incident ion current reaching the current collector through the RFEA retarding grids. In this paper an RFEA has been calibrated to measure ion current density from an ion beam at pressures ranging from 0.5 to 50.0mTorr. A unique method is presented where the currents generated at each of the retarding grids and the RFEA upper face are measured separately, allowing the reduction in ion current to be monitored and accounted for at each stage of ion transit to the collector. From these I-V measurements a physical model is described. Subsequently, a mathematical description is extracted which includes parameters to account for grid transmissions, upper face secondary electron emission and collisionality. Pressure-dependent calibration factors can be calculated from least mean square best fits of the collector current to the model allowing quantitative measurement of ion current density. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Mac an tSaoir S.,BT in Ireland |
Cooke L.R.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute of Northern Ireland |
McCracken A.R.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute of Northern Ireland
Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research | Year: 2010
The theory that orchards with zero or low levels of apple scab post harvest do not need scab protection at the start of the next growing season was evaluated under Irish conditions. In addition, a range of post-harvest orchard sanitation practices (application of urea to rot overwintering leaves, mowing the orchard or total leaf removal in February) were also evaluated. Due to the high summer rainfall in Ireland (compared to all other European apple growing areas) and the severe susceptibility of the apple cultivar Bramley's Seedling to scab (Venturia inaequalis), neither clean orchards in the autumn nor sanitation practices were sufficient to eliminate the requirement for full fungicide protection programmes at the start of the following growing season. Post harvest applications of urea proved difficult due to late harvesting of pollinator fruit for the juice market and wet weather. Total removal of leaf litter from plots prior to the commencement of growth did not significantly reduce disease incidence. Regardless of orchard cleanliness in autumn, missing the first fungicide application in the spring always reduced yield.
PubMed | BT in Ireland
Type: | Journal: Complementary therapies in clinical practice | Year: 2016
Many pregnant women with low back and/or pelvic pain (LBPP) use pain medications to manage this pain, much of which is self-prescribed and potentially harmful. Therefore, there is a need to find effective nonpharmacological treatments for the condition. Reflexology has previously been shown to help nonspecific low back pain. Therefore; a pilot RCT was conducted investigating reflexology in the management of pregnancy-LBPP. 90 primiparous women were randomised to either usual care, a reflexology or footbath intervention. Primary outcome measures were; the Pain Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). 64 women completed the RCT; retention rates for the reflexology group were 80%, usual care group 83.33% and footbath group 50%. The reflexology group demonstrated a Clinically Important Change (CIC) in pain frequency (1.64cm). Results indicate it is feasible to conduct an RCT in this area, although a footbath is an unsuitable sham treatment. Reflexology may help manage pregnancy-LBPP; however a fully powered trial is needed to confirm this.
PubMed | BT in Ireland
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) | Year: 2016
Hepatosplenic candidiasis is an increasingly encountered complication of treatment of patients with acute leukaemia [ Clin. Infect. Dis. 24 (1997) 375]. Management is difficult as delay in further chemotherapy may allow relapse of the leukaemia while the infection may progress if chemotherapy is continued [ Anticancer Res. 19 (1999) 757]. We report five cases of suspected hepatosplenic candidiasis in a single haematology unit over a 30-month period. All patients were treated with oral fluconazole following intravenous amphotericin or liposomal amphotericin B lipid complex. Chemotherapy was withheld during treatment of infection. Two patients remain in haematological remission despite suboptimal therapy for their leukaemia. One patient died from progressive fungal infection, 1 patient of cardiac disease and 1 patient has had recent relapse of their leukaemia. We demonstrate that hepatosplenic candidiasis may be treated with oral fluconazole while chemotherapy is discontinued and also suggest that this infection or its treatment may have had a beneficial immunomodulatory affect on the leukaemic process in the surviving patients.
PubMed | I - Shou University, Chang Jung Christian University, BT in Ireland and E Da Hospital
Type: | Journal: Nurse education today | Year: 2016
The Fundamental Nursing clinical practicum is an essential module for nursing students. Some feel stress or anxiety about attending this first placement; however, evidence demonstrates that it is rare to explore the feelings of anxiety felt by the nursing students concerning their first clinical practicum.This study was designed to explore student nurses experiences of anxiety felt regarding their initial clinical practicum while studying for their University degree.A phenomenological approach was used.A university in Southern Taiwan.A purposive sampling of fifteen student nurses with anxiety reactions who had completed their first clinical practicum.Data were collected using a semi-structured guide and deep interview. Data were analyzed using Colaizzis seven-step phenomenological method.Three themes surfaced in the findings. The first theme was anxiety around their first clinical practicum, which stirred up anxiety about: self-doubt, worry and fear; difficulty coping with the learning process; worry hampered establishing therapeutic relationships with patients; the progress of the patients illness could not be predicted; and anxiety felt about lecturer-student interactions. The second theme was three phases of anxiety reactions, which included increasing anxiety before clinical practicum; exacerbated anxiety during clinical practicum, and relief of anxiety after clinical practicum. The third theme was coping behaviors. This comprised: self-reflection in preparation for clinical practicum; finding ways to release emotions; distractions from the anxiety; and, also facing their difficulties head-on.The findings could help raise the awareness of lecturers and students by understanding student nurses anxiety experiences and facilitating a healthy preparation for their initial clinical practicum, consequently proactively helping reduce potential anxiety experiences.