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Posserud M.-B.,University of Bergen | Lundervold A.J.,University of Bergen | Lundervold A.J.,bsen Center For Research On Neuropsychiatric Disorders
The Scientific World Journal

We examined the relationship between service use and the number of problem areas as reported by parents and teachers on questionnaires among children aged 7-9 years old in the Bergen Child Study, a total population study including more than 9000 children. A problem area was counted as present if the child scored above the 95th percentile on parent and/or teacher questionnaire. A total number of 13 problem areas were included. Odd ratios (ORs) for contact with child and adolescent mental health services (CAMH), school psychology services (SPS), health visiting nurse/physician, and school support were calculated with gender as covariate. The number of symptom areas was highly predictive of service use, showing a dose-response relationship for all services. Children scoring on ≥4 problem areas had a more than hundredfold risk of being in contact with CAMH services compared to children without problems. The mean number of problem areas for children in CAMH and SPS was 6.1 and 4.4 respectively, strongly supporting the ESSENCE model predicting multisymptomatology in children in specialized services. Even after controlling for number of problem areas, boys were twice as likely as girls to be in contact with CAMH, replicating previous findings of female gender being a strong barrier to mental health services. © 2013 Maj-Britt Posserud and Astri J. Lundervold. Source

Adolfsdottir S.,University of Bergen | Haasz J.,University of Bergen | Wehling E.,University of Bergen | Wehling E.,Kavli Research Center for Aging | And 5 more authors.

Objective: To investigate brain- behavior relationships between morphometric brain measures and salient executive function (EF) measures of inhibition and switching. Method: One hundred participants (49-80 years) performed the Color Word Interference Test from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS). Salient measures of EF components of inhibition and switching, of which the effect of more fundamental skills were regressed out, were analyzed using linear models and a conditional inference trees analysis taking intercorrelations between predictor variables (brain volumes, age, gender, and education) into account. Results: The conditional inference trees analysis demonstrated a primary role of the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) in explaining variations in the salient EF measure of switching and combined inhibition/switching. Age predicted measures of inhibition. Conclusion: The study highlights the importance of considering fundamental cognitive skills and the use of a statistical method taking possible complex relationships between predictor variables into account when interpreting standard EF test results. Further studies should include MRI measures representing neural networks that may relate to CWIT performance, and longitudinal studies are required to investigate any causal relationships. © 2014 American Psychological Association. Source

Nordanger D.O.,University of Bergen | Hysing M.,University of Bergen | Posserud M.-B.,University of Bergen | Lundervold A.J.,University of Bergen | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Traumatic Stress

The July 22, 2011, Oslo Terror was defined as a national disaster. Former studies on terror attacks and mass shootings have shown elevated levels of posttraumatic complaints both in direct victims and in general populations. Little is known about how such extreme events in a generally safe society such as Norway would affect an adolescent population. This study examines posttraumatic stress reactions and changes in worldview in relationship to risk factors among 10,220 high school students using data from the unghordaland survey. One out of 5 respondents knew someone directly exposed, 55.7% experienced the events to some extent as threatening to their own or their close ones' lives, and 79.9% reported their worldview to be changed. For posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) DSM IV criteria, 0.8% reported substantial symptoms of reexperiencing (Criterion B), 4.9% of avoidance (Criterion C), and 1.1% of hyperarousal (Criterion D). Greater personal proximity to the events, higher levels of perceived life threat, and being a female or an immigrant predicted higher levels of PTSD symptom distress. Results indicate that the terror events made a deep impression on Norwegian adolescents, but without causing markedly elevated levels of PTSD symptomatology in the general young population. © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. Source

Sorensen L.,University of Bergen | Sorensen L.,bsen Center For Research On Neuropsychiatric Disorders | Plessen K.J.,bsen Center For Research On Neuropsychiatric Disorders | Plessen K.J.,Center for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Capital Region | And 5 more authors.
Child Neuropsychology

The Stroop Interference Test is widely used to assess the inhibition function; however, divergent results have emerged from meta-analyses in children with ADHD. This has led to conflicting results as to whether the Stroop test detects the level of inhibition in these children. We hypothesized that the general approach to include interference scores depending on response time causes conflicting results, whereas recordings of errors may prove a superior measure of the inhibition function in children with ADHD. In the present study, 39 children with an ADHD diagnosis, two subgroups with and without another comorbid mental health disorder, were compared with respect to their interference scores of response time and errors with two subgroups of children with no ADHD. The two subgroups comprised 33 children with another mental health disorder other than ADHD and 56 children with no psychiatric disorder. The between-group analyses detected a multivariate, marginal main effect of an ADHD diagnosis on the Stroop interference scores, and a univariate main effect of an ADHD diagnosis on the interference score of errors. Further, only the interference score of errors predicted significantly the parent reported scores on the Inhibit scale from the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. These findings support that a Stroop interference score of errors is sensitive for inhibition problems in children with ADHD and encourages the use of Stroop versions including error recordings independent of response time. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source

Skogen J.C.,Norwegian Institute of Public Health | Skogen J.C.,University of Stavanger | Skogen J.C.,University of Bergen | Sivertsen B.,Norwegian Institute of Public Health | And 6 more authors.
BMJ Open

Objectives: The use of alcohol and drugs is prevalent among adolescents, but too little is known about the association between debut of alcohol and drug use, problematic use and concurrent mental health. The aim of the study was to investigate the cross-sectional association between debut of any alcohol or drug use and alcohol-related and drug-related problems and mental health. We also wanted to examine potential interactions between gender and age, and alcohol-related and drug-related variables. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Population-based sample of Norwegian adolescents. Participants: Data stem from the large population-based ung@hordaland study (N=9203), where all adolescents aged 17-19 years living in Hordaland county (Norway) were invited to participate. The main independent variables were debut of alcohol and drug use, alcohol consumption and the presence of alcohol and drug problems as measured by CRAFFT. Outcomes: The dependent variables were self-reported symptoms of anxiety, depression, inattention and hyperactivity. Statistical analyses included logistic regression models. Results: Debut of alcohol and drug use were associated with symptoms of depression, inattention and hyperactivity (crude ORs 1.69-2.38, p<0.001), while only debut of drug use was associated with increased symptoms of anxiety (OR=1.33, CI 95% 1.05 to 1.68, p=0.017). Alcohol-related and drug-related problems as measured by CRAFFT were associated with all mental health problems (crude ORs 1.68-3.24, p<0.001). There was little evidence of any substantial age or gender confounding on the estimated associations between alcohol-related and drug-related measures and mental health problems. Conclusions: Early debut of alcohol and drug use and drug problems is consistently associated with more symptoms of mental health problems, indicating that these factors are an important general indicator of mental health in adolescence. © 2014, BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved. Source

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