bsen Center For Research On Neuropsychiatric Disorders

Bergen, Norway

bsen Center For Research On Neuropsychiatric Disorders

Bergen, Norway
Time filter
Source Type

Espeseth T.,Center for Advanced Study | Espeseth T.,University of Oslo | Espeseth T.,University of Bergen | Christoforou A.,University of Bergen | And 9 more authors.
Twin Research and Human Genetics | Year: 2012

Data collection for the Norwegian Cognitive NeuroGenetics sample (NCNG) was initiated in 2003 with a research grant (to Ivar Reinvang) to study cognitive aging, brain function, and genetic risk factors. The original focus was on the effects of aging (from middle age and up) and candidate genes (e.g., APOE, CHRNA4) in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs, with the cognitive and MRI-based data primarily being used for this purpose. However, as the main topic of the project broadened from cognitive aging to imaging and cognitive genetics more generally, the sample size, age range of the participants, and scope of available phenotypes and genotypes, have developed beyond the initial project. In 2009, a genome-wide association (GWA) study was undertaken, and the NCNG proper was established to study the genetics of cognitive and brain function more comprehensively. The NCNG is now controlled by the NCNG Study Group, which consists of the present authors. Prominent features of the NCNG are the adult life-span coverage of healthy participants with high-dimensional imaging, and cognitive data from a genetically homogenous sample. Another unique property is the large-scale (sample size 300-700) use of experimental cognitive tasks focusing on attention and working memory. The NCNG data is now used in numerous ongoing GWA-based studies and has contributed to several international consortia on imaging and cognitive genetics. The objective of the following presentation is to give other researchers the information necessary to evaluate possible contributions from the NCNG to various multi-sample data analyses. © The Authors 2012.

Sorensen L.,University of Bergen | Sorensen L.,bsen Center For Research On Neuropsychiatric Disorders | Plessen K.J.,bsen Center For Research On Neuropsychiatric Disorders | Plessen K.J.,Center for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Capital Region | And 5 more authors.
Child Neuropsychology | Year: 2014

The Stroop Interference Test is widely used to assess the inhibition function; however, divergent results have emerged from meta-analyses in children with ADHD. This has led to conflicting results as to whether the Stroop test detects the level of inhibition in these children. We hypothesized that the general approach to include interference scores depending on response time causes conflicting results, whereas recordings of errors may prove a superior measure of the inhibition function in children with ADHD. In the present study, 39 children with an ADHD diagnosis, two subgroups with and without another comorbid mental health disorder, were compared with respect to their interference scores of response time and errors with two subgroups of children with no ADHD. The two subgroups comprised 33 children with another mental health disorder other than ADHD and 56 children with no psychiatric disorder. The between-group analyses detected a multivariate, marginal main effect of an ADHD diagnosis on the Stroop interference scores, and a univariate main effect of an ADHD diagnosis on the interference score of errors. Further, only the interference score of errors predicted significantly the parent reported scores on the Inhibit scale from the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. These findings support that a Stroop interference score of errors is sensitive for inhibition problems in children with ADHD and encourages the use of Stroop versions including error recordings independent of response time. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Neto E.,University of Bergen | Allen E.A.,University of Bergen | Allen E.A.,bsen Center For Research On Neuropsychiatric Disorders | Allen E.A.,The Mind Research Network | And 4 more authors.
Frontiers in Neurology | Year: 2015

Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) present with similar clinical symptoms of cognitive decline, but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms differ. To determine whether clinical electroencephalography (EEG) can provide information relevant to discriminate between these diagnoses, we used quantitative EEG analysis to compare the spectra between non-medicated patients with AD (n = 77) and VaD (n = 77) and healthy elderly normal controls (NC) (n = 77). We use curve-fitting with a combination of a power loss and Gaussian function to model the averaged resting-state spectra of each EEG channel extracting six parameters. We assessed the performance of our model and tested the extracted parameters for group differentiation. We performed regression analysis in a multivariate analysis of covariance with group, age, gender, and number of epochs as predictors and further explored the topographical group differences with pair-wise contrasts. Significant topographical differences between the groups were found in several of the extracted features. Both AD and VaD groups showed increased delta power when compared to NC, whereas the AD patients showed a decrease in alpha power for occipital and temporal regions when compared with NC. The VaD patients had higher alpha power than NC and AD. The AD and VaD groups showed slowing of the alpha rhythm. Variability of the alpha frequency was wider for both AD and VaD groups. There was a general decrease in beta power for both AD and VaD. The proposed model is useful to parameterize spectra, which allowed extracting relevant clinical EEG key features that move toward simple and interpretable diagnostic criteria. © 2015 Neto, Allen, Aurlien, Nordby and Eichele.

Kleppe R.,University of Bergen | Kleppe R.,bsen Center For Research On Neuropsychiatric Disorders | Rosati S.,University Utrecht | Rosati S.,Netherland Proteomics Center | And 10 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Proteomics | Year: 2014

Phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) can form complexes with 14-3-3 proteins, resulting in enzyme activation and stabilization. Although TH was among the first binding partners identified for these ubiquitous regulatory proteins, the binding stoichiometry and the activation mechanism remain unknown. To address this, we performed native mass spectrometry analyses of human TH (non-phosphorylated or phosphorylated on Ser19 (TH-pS19), Ser40 (TH-pS40), or Ser19 and Ser40 (TH-pS19pS40)) alone and together with 14-3-3γ. Tetrameric TH-pS19 (224 kDa) bound 14-3-3γ (58.3 kDa) with high affinity (K d = 3.2 nM), generating complexes containing either one (282.4 kDa) or two (340.8 kDa) dimers of 14-3-3. Electron microscopy also revealed one major population of an asymmetric complex, consistent with one TH tetramer and one 14-3-3 dimer, and a minor population of a symmetric complex of one TH tetramer with two 14-3-3 dimers. Lower phosphorylation stoichiometries (0.15-0.54 phosphate/ monomer) produced moderate changes in binding kinetics, but native MS detected much less of the symmetric TH:14-3-3γ complex. Interestingly, dephosphorylation of [32P]-TH-pS19 was mono-exponential for low phosphorylation stoichiometries (0.18-0.52), and addition of phosphatase accelerated the dissociation of the TH-pS19:14-3-3γ complex 3- to 4-fold. All together this is consistent with a model in which the pS19 residues in the TH tetramer contribute differently in the association to 14-3-3γ. Complex formation between TH-pS40 and 14-3-3γ was not detected via native MS, and surface plasmon resonance showed that the interaction was very weak. Furthermore, TH-pS19pS40 behaved similarly to TH-pS19 in terms of binding stoichiometry and affinity (Kd = 2.1 nM). However, we found that 14-3-3γ inhibited the phosphorylation rate of TH-pS19 by PKA (3.5-fold) on Ser40. We therefore conclude that Ser40 does not significantly contribute to the binding of 14-3-3γ, and rather has reduced accessibility in the TH:14-3-3γ complex. This adds to our understanding of the fine-tuned physiological regulation of TH, including hierarchical phosphorylation at multiple sites. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Skogen J.C.,Norwegian Institute of Public Health | Skogen J.C.,University of Stavanger | Skogen J.C.,University of Bergen | Sivertsen B.,Norwegian Institute of Public Health | And 6 more authors.
BMJ Open | Year: 2014

Objectives: The use of alcohol and drugs is prevalent among adolescents, but too little is known about the association between debut of alcohol and drug use, problematic use and concurrent mental health. The aim of the study was to investigate the cross-sectional association between debut of any alcohol or drug use and alcohol-related and drug-related problems and mental health. We also wanted to examine potential interactions between gender and age, and alcohol-related and drug-related variables. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Population-based sample of Norwegian adolescents. Participants: Data stem from the large population-based ung@hordaland study (N=9203), where all adolescents aged 17-19 years living in Hordaland county (Norway) were invited to participate. The main independent variables were debut of alcohol and drug use, alcohol consumption and the presence of alcohol and drug problems as measured by CRAFFT. Outcomes: The dependent variables were self-reported symptoms of anxiety, depression, inattention and hyperactivity. Statistical analyses included logistic regression models. Results: Debut of alcohol and drug use were associated with symptoms of depression, inattention and hyperactivity (crude ORs 1.69-2.38, p<0.001), while only debut of drug use was associated with increased symptoms of anxiety (OR=1.33, CI 95% 1.05 to 1.68, p=0.017). Alcohol-related and drug-related problems as measured by CRAFFT were associated with all mental health problems (crude ORs 1.68-3.24, p<0.001). There was little evidence of any substantial age or gender confounding on the estimated associations between alcohol-related and drug-related measures and mental health problems. Conclusions: Early debut of alcohol and drug use and drug problems is consistently associated with more symptoms of mental health problems, indicating that these factors are an important general indicator of mental health in adolescence. © 2014, BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

Adolfsdottir S.,University of Bergen | Haasz J.,University of Bergen | Wehling E.,University of Bergen | Wehling E.,Haraldsplass Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Neuropsychology | Year: 2014

Objective: To investigate brain- behavior relationships between morphometric brain measures and salient executive function (EF) measures of inhibition and switching. Method: One hundred participants (49-80 years) performed the Color Word Interference Test from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS). Salient measures of EF components of inhibition and switching, of which the effect of more fundamental skills were regressed out, were analyzed using linear models and a conditional inference trees analysis taking intercorrelations between predictor variables (brain volumes, age, gender, and education) into account. Results: The conditional inference trees analysis demonstrated a primary role of the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) in explaining variations in the salient EF measure of switching and combined inhibition/switching. Age predicted measures of inhibition. Conclusion: The study highlights the importance of considering fundamental cognitive skills and the use of a statistical method taking possible complex relationships between predictor variables into account when interpreting standard EF test results. Further studies should include MRI measures representing neural networks that may relate to CWIT performance, and longitudinal studies are required to investigate any causal relationships. © 2014 American Psychological Association.

Posserud M.-B.,University of Bergen | Lundervold A.J.,University of Bergen | Lundervold A.J.,bsen Center For Research On Neuropsychiatric Disorders
The Scientific World Journal | Year: 2013

We examined the relationship between service use and the number of problem areas as reported by parents and teachers on questionnaires among children aged 7-9 years old in the Bergen Child Study, a total population study including more than 9000 children. A problem area was counted as present if the child scored above the 95th percentile on parent and/or teacher questionnaire. A total number of 13 problem areas were included. Odd ratios (ORs) for contact with child and adolescent mental health services (CAMH), school psychology services (SPS), health visiting nurse/physician, and school support were calculated with gender as covariate. The number of symptom areas was highly predictive of service use, showing a dose-response relationship for all services. Children scoring on ≥4 problem areas had a more than hundredfold risk of being in contact with CAMH services compared to children without problems. The mean number of problem areas for children in CAMH and SPS was 6.1 and 4.4 respectively, strongly supporting the ESSENCE model predicting multisymptomatology in children in specialized services. Even after controlling for number of problem areas, boys were twice as likely as girls to be in contact with CAMH, replicating previous findings of female gender being a strong barrier to mental health services. © 2013 Maj-Britt Posserud and Astri J. Lundervold.

Posserud M.-B.,University of Bergen | Posserud M.-B.,bsen Center For Research On Neuropsychiatric Disorders | Ullebo A.K.,University of Bergen | Plessen K.J.,Copenhagen University | And 5 more authors.
European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry | Year: 2014

We compared four instruments commonly used to screen for and diagnose Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children. The Bergen Child Study included a DSM-IV ADHD symptom list and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) as screen in Phase one. Phase two included the parent Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA), whereas Phase three comprised in-depth clinical assessment, including the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children (K-SADS). We compared ADHD as diagnosed by the four instruments in the children with normal intellectual functioning participating in all three phases (N = 234). The DSM-IV ADHD symptom list showed moderate agreement with all other instruments (κ = 0.53-0.57), whereas there was fair agreement between the K-SADS-DAWBA (κ = 0.31) and between SDQ-DAWBA (κ = 0.33). The DAWBA diagnosed fewer children with ADHD than did the other instruments. Implications for use of the instruments are discussed. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Nordanger D.O.,University of Bergen | Hysing M.,University of Bergen | Posserud M.-B.,University of Bergen | Lundervold A.J.,University of Bergen | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Traumatic Stress | Year: 2013

The July 22, 2011, Oslo Terror was defined as a national disaster. Former studies on terror attacks and mass shootings have shown elevated levels of posttraumatic complaints both in direct victims and in general populations. Little is known about how such extreme events in a generally safe society such as Norway would affect an adolescent population. This study examines posttraumatic stress reactions and changes in worldview in relationship to risk factors among 10,220 high school students using data from the unghordaland survey. One out of 5 respondents knew someone directly exposed, 55.7% experienced the events to some extent as threatening to their own or their close ones' lives, and 79.9% reported their worldview to be changed. For posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) DSM IV criteria, 0.8% reported substantial symptoms of reexperiencing (Criterion B), 4.9% of avoidance (Criterion C), and 1.1% of hyperarousal (Criterion D). Greater personal proximity to the events, higher levels of perceived life threat, and being a female or an immigrant predicted higher levels of PTSD symptom distress. Results indicate that the terror events made a deep impression on Norwegian adolescents, but without causing markedly elevated levels of PTSD symptomatology in the general young population. © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

Loading bsen Center For Research On Neuropsychiatric Disorders collaborators
Loading bsen Center For Research On Neuropsychiatric Disorders collaborators