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Prior R.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Fan E.,Brunswick Laboratories | Ji H.,XING | Howell A.,Rutgers University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2010

Background: The objective of this study was to validate an improved 4 dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMAC) colorimetric method using a commercially available standard (procyanidin A2), for the standard method for quantification of proanthocyanidins (PACs) in cranberry powders, in order to establish dosage guidelines for the uropathogenic bacterial anti adhesion effect of cranberry. Results: Commercially available cranberry samples were obtained (five from U.S. sources and six from European sources) for PAC quantification in five different analytical laboratories. Each laboratory extracted and analyzed the samples using the improved DMA C method. Within-laboratory variation (mean ± SD)was 4.1 ± 1.7% RSD (range, 2.3-6.1% RSD) and the between laboratory variability was 16.9 ± 8.5% RSD (range, 8-32% RSD). For comparative purposes, the cranberry samples were alternatively quantified using weights of extracted PACs (gravimetric). The correlation coefficient between the two methods was 0.989. Conclusion: This improved DMA C method provides asimple, robust and relatively specific spectrophotometric assay for total PACs in cranberry samples using commercially available procyanidin A2 dimer as a standard. DMAC is most useful within a given type of food such as cranberries, but may not be appropriate for comparing concentrations across different food types, particularly in those cases where large differences exist among the relative amounts of each oligomer and polymer. © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

Chu Y.-F.,Kraft Foods Inc. | Chen Y.,Kraft Foods Inc. | Black R.M.,Kraft Foods Inc. | Brown P.H.,Kraft Foods Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Coffee consumption is correlated with a lower risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), though whether differences exist in the T2D-mitigating bioactivities of decaffeinated (RD) and regular (RR) coffee is unclear. We conducted cell-based experiments to determine whether different phenolic levels in RD and RR affect T2D-mitigating bioactivities. The total phenolic content and the chemical antioxidant activity were significantly higher in RD than RR. However, these coffees had comparable cellular antioxidant activity. Both coffees reduced activation of NF-κB, with RR being twice as strong as RD. They also both increased glucose uptake in human adipocytes by 2-fold. Of the bioactivities examined, only chemical antioxidant activity was related to total phenolic levels. The NF-κB inhibition was proportional to chlorogenic acid levels, though chlorogenic acids could not account for the full inhibitory effect of coffee. Thus, a matrix effect may exist, whereby components of coffee work together to provide bioactivities that ameliorate the T2D risk. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Kondo M.,University of Massachusetts Dartmouth | Kondo M.,Brunswick Laboratories | Mackinnon S.L.,National Research Council Canada | Craft C.C.,National Research Council Canada | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2011

Background: Ursolic acid and its cis- and trans-3-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl esters have been identified as constituents of American cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon), which inhibit tumor cell proliferation. Since the compounds may contribute to berry anticancer properties, their content in cranberries, selected cranberry products, and three other Vaccinium species (V. oxycoccus, V. vitis-idaea and V. angustifolium) was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The ability of these compounds to inhibit growth in a panel of tumor cell lines and inhibit matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity associated with tumor invasion and metastasis was determined in DU145 prostate tumor cells. Results: The highest content of ursolic acid and esters was found in V. macrocarpon berries (0.460-1.090 g ursolic acid and 0.040-0.160 g each ester kg-1 fresh weight). V. vitis-idaea and V. angustifolium contained ursolic acid (0.230-0.260 g kg-1), but the esters were not detected. V. oxycoccus was lowest (0.129 g ursolic acid and esters per kg). Ursolic acid content was highest in cranberry products prepared from whole fruit. Ursolic acid and its esters inhibited tumor cell growth at micromolar concentrations, and inhibited MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity at concentrations below those previously reported for cranberry polyphenolics. Conclusion: Cranberries (V. macrocarpon) were the best source of ursolic acid and its esters among the fruit and products tested. These compounds may limit prostate carcinogenesis through matrix metalloproteinase inhibition. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

Kang J.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Thakali K.M.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Xie C.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Kondo M.,Brunswick Laboratories | And 6 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

There are two predominant palm tree species producing edible fruit known as "aaí" found widely dispersed through the Amazon: Euterpe oleracea Mart. and Euterpe precatoria Mart. They differ from each other in terms of how the plants grow and their phytochemical composition. E. oleracea (EO) has received considerable attention as a "super fruit" because of its high antioxidant capacity, while studies on E. precatoria (EP) remain rare. In this study, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of EP fruit pulps were evaluated by different assays including a series of oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) based assays, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, the cell-based antioxidant protection in erythrocyte (CAP-e) assay, as well as the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) assay. Total phenolics were also measured as an indication of the total phenol content. For comparative purposes, the EO fruit pulp was included. The antioxidant capacity of the EP fruit pulp was determined to be superior to the EO fruit pulp in every chemical based assay. In the cell-based CAP-e assay, the EP fruit pulp showed a dose-dependent inhibition against oxidative damage with an IC 50 of 0.167 g/l. In the SEAP reporter assay, the EP fruit pulp polyphenol-rich extracts inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NF-κB activation by 23% (p < 0.05) at 20 μg/ml, whereas the extract of the EO fruit pulp did not show a significant inhibitory effect at comparable doses. In addition, carotenoids were quantified for the first time in EP, since EP has high scavenging capacity against singlet oxygen. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Patel K.D.,University of Massachusetts Dartmouth | Scarano F.J.,University of Massachusetts Dartmouth | Kondo M.,University of Massachusetts Dartmouth | Kondo M.,Brunswick Laboratories | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) has been shown in clinical studies to reduce infections caused by Escherichia coli and other bacteria, and proanthocyanidins are believed to play a role. The ability of cranberry to inhibit the growth of opportunistic human fungal pathogens that cause oral, skin, respiratory, and systemic infections has not been well-studied. Fractions from whole cranberry fruit were screened for inhibition of five Candida species and Cryptococcus neoformans, a causative agent of fungal meningitis. Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae, Candida krusei, and Cryptococcus neoformans showed significant susceptibility to treatment with cranberry proanthocyanidin fractions in a broth microdilution assay, with minimum inhibitory concentrations as low as 1 μg/mL. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of subfractions detected epicatechin oligomers of up to 12 degrees of polymerization. Those containing larger oligomers caused the strongest inhibition. This study suggests that cranberry has potential as an antifungal agent. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

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