Brunnleitenweg 41

A Elsbethen

Brunnleitenweg 41

A Elsbethen

Time filter

Source Type

Sturm R.,Brunnleitenweg 41
Annals of Translational Medicine | Year: 2017

Background: The present contribution deals with theoretical aspects regarding biogenic particle clearance from various lung structures of probands with different ages (1, 5, 15, 20 y). With reference to part 1 of the study, particles varying in size and shape are subject to a detailed analysis. The main goal of the investigation consists in an increase of our knowledge concerning the clearance behaviour of bioparticles and its dependence upon various physiological and anatomical factors. Methods: Theoretical clearance of biogenic particles was subdivided into four main phases, namely fast bronchial clearance, slow bronchial clearance, fast alveolar clearance, and slow alveolar clearance. All of these phases were simulated by using a well validated stochastic modeling approach, where the main focus is set on the randomly varied particle mass transfer between main compartments of the human respiratory tract. Whilst effects of particle geometry on clearance were approximated by application of the projective-diameter concept, age dependence of the particle removal process was expressed by the experimentally proven relationship between bronchial mucus velocities and morphometry of the airway tree. Results: According to the results of the theoretical simulations efficiency of fast bronchial clearance, expressed by the 24-h-retention value, exhibits a negative correlation with proband's age, whereas the other clearance phases are characterized by a rather conservative behaviour among the different age categories. Highest clearance rates may be observed for very fine (<0.01 μm) and very coarse particles (>5 μm) preferentially deposited in the upper bronchial airways, whilst large particles accumulated in the alveoli may be stored there for several months to years. Conclusions: The study comes to the conclusion that infants and children dispose of an enhanced bronchial clearance efficiency with respect to adolescents and adults, which results in a faster removal of particulate substances accumulated in the upper bronchial regions. Particles escaping from the natural filtering process in the upper airways and undergoing alveolar deposition are subject to identical clearance scenarios among the age groups and may represent remarkable health hazards. © Annals of Translational Medicine.


Sturm R.,Brunnleitenweg 41
Zeitschrift fur Medizinische Physik | Year: 2015

Deposition of inhaled single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in the respiratory tract was theoretically investigated for various age groups (infants, children, adolescents, and adults). Additionally, possible effects of the inhalative flow rate on nanotube deposition were simulated for adult lungs. Theoretical computations were based on the aerodynamic diameter concept and the assumption of particles being randomly transported through a stochastic (close-to-realistic) lung structure. Deposition of nanotubes was calculated by application of well validated empirical deposition formulae, thereby considering Browian motion, inertial impaction, interception, and sedimentation as main deposition mechanisms acting on the particles. Results of the simulations clearly show that for a given inhalation scenario (sitting breathing) total, bronchial, and acinar nanotube deposition increase with subject's age, whereas extrathoracic deposition is characterized by a decrease from younger to older subjects. According to the data provided by the model, MWCNT, whose aerodynamic diameters exceed those of SWCNT by one order of magnitude, are deposited in specific respiratory compartments to a lower extent than SWCNT. A change of the physical state from sitting to heavy work results in a common decline of bronchial and extrathoracic deposition of nanotubes. Total deposition is slightly increased for SWCNT and moderately decreased for MWCNT, whereas acinar deposition is significantly increased for SWCNT and decreased for MWCNT. Based on the results of this contribution it may be concluded that SWCNT bear a higher potential as health hazards than MWCNT, because they are accumulated in sensitive lung regions with higher doses than MWCNT. © 2014.


As the main objective of the present study, the morphological development of accessory zircons from four granitoids (pearl gneiss, fine-grained granite, coarse-grained gneiss, and Weinsberg granite) of the South-western Bohemian Massif was described in detail. On the one hand, this was realized by the classical approach, including a statistical evaluation of external zircon morphologies with the typology scheme. On the other hand, direct insight into the growth of single crystals was established by the production of crystal sections parallel and perpendicular to the crystallographic c-axis and by their subsequent imaging with the electron microprobe. Regarding the second method, eventual morphological trends were represented as a function of the growth rates of single crystal forms. Except for the coarse-grained gneiss, zircon crystals of the investigated granitoids show similar morphological trends according to both methods, starting with a dominant {1. 0. 0} prism and equally sized pyramids. Final crystal habit, however, is marked by the predominance of {1. 1. 0} and {2. 1. 1}. Zircon crystals from the coarse-grained gneiss run through a completely different development with a change of the prism habit from {1. 1. 0} to {1. 0. 0} and a more or less static growth of {1. 0. 1} with only slight modifications in size. Comparison of the results with data from the literature underlines the role of magma chemistry, magma temperature, and cooling rate as the main factors responsible for growth trends of accessory zircon. © 2009 Elsevier GmbH.


Main objective of the study was the description of Weighted Average Analysis (WAA) as appropriate mathematical method for modelling the demands of freshwater molluscs on their habitats. With this approach site-specific environmental factors defining a certain biotope are weighted by the related population density of a selected organism. This allows the determination of optimum ranges of physical and chemical factors, within which highest probabilities of occurrence of the investigated organism may be expected. As an exemplarycase ecological demands of the Austrian spring snail, Bythinella austriaca, were modelled by using WAA. In addition, a global marginality coefficient, which reflects the ability of the gastropod to occupy ecological niches, and a global tolerance coefficient, describing the width of the niche colonized by the organism, were computed for 10 selected environmental factors. As suggested by the modelling results, B. austriaca exhibits specialist behaviour with regard to water temperature, electric conductivity, dissolved oxygen, total water hardness, geographic altitude, biological oxygen demand, current velocity, and dissolved nitrate. Furthermore, the gastropod only tolerates small to intermediate fluctuations of these environmental factors, which remarkably reduces its ability to act as a pioneer species. © 2016, Journal of Limnology. All rights reserved.


The accessory glands in the genital tract of female Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) were investigated in detail. The glands are situated within the 7th and 8th abdominal segment and lead to the genital chamber lateral to the terminal papilla of the ductus receptaculi. The shape of the gland is characterized by a complex system of tubules, including numerous ramifications. The gland's size ranges from 2 to 4 mm. The epithelium is constructed according to a simple scheme and consists of a cuticular intima at the luminal side, one layer of gland cells, and a basallamina at the outermost side. The observed morphology of the accessory glands widely corresponds with that in other cricket species (e.g., Teleogryllus commodus). This is also true for the structure of a single gland cell, which can be subdivided into a basal part with nucleus and intracellular cisternae, as well as an apical part with all those compartments responsible for the production of the secretion. The secretion itself may be classified as lipophilic and is produced for the first time 4 to 6 days after the imaginai moult. Several endogenic functions of the secretion are discussed (lubricant for oviposition, support for introducing the tube of the spermatophore into the ductus receptaculi, etc.). © This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.


Mountain lakes represent essential stages for aquatic species on their way colonizing habitats of more elevated regions. Despite extensive biological and chemical study, only little has been reported about the species number and density of freshwater molluscs in these waters. The article presented here elucidates the dispersal of aquatic gastropods and bivalves in 12 mountain lakes that are commonly situated in the Eastern Alps, Austria. Molluscs were recorded at 120 sample points, where a total of 13 species (8 gastropods and 5 bivalves) could be determined. Species distribution data as well as results from contemporarily conducted physico-chemical factor recording were subject to weighted average analysis. In addition, a global marginality coefficient indicating the particularity of a habitat inhabited by a focal species as well as a global tolerance coefficient expressing the width of a niche occupied by this species were computed. Species-environment relationships exhibited that species number and specific density decrease with increasing geographic altitude, declining water temperature, and decreasing amount of submerged vegetation. Whilst waters of the montane altitude level are partly charcterized by high number of mollusc species (> 10), lakes of the subalpine altitude level commonly bear 1 or 2 species with ≪1 ind./m 2. As proposed by the results of statistics, 9 of the 13 mollusc species are characterized by a pronounced behaviour as specialists with respect to most environmental factors. The four remaining species, Pisidium casertanum, Galba truncatula, Radix labiata, and Radix balthica, act as generalists which increases their pioneering role in the long-term occupation of the Central-alpine region. © 2012 Chinese Society for Oceanology and Limnology, Science Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Sturm R.,Brunnleitenweg 41
Computers in Biology and Medicine | Year: 2011

A mathematical model is presented that describes the health-endangering interaction of fibrous particles deposited in the human alveoli with alveolar fluids, cells, and tissues. As suggested by the theoretical approach, short fibers (diameter: 0.5μm, length: 2-10μm) are preferably ingested by alveolar macrophages and removed from the alveolar surface 10-15 days after exposure. Long (diameter: 0.5μm, length: 10-50μm) biopersistent fibers are not effectively cleared from the alveoli due to the repeated process of frustrated phagocytosis. Long biosoluble fibers also undergo a frustrated phagocytosis, with processes of extensive lysis leading to their significant shortening. The decrease in length causes the initiation of those clearance mechanisms that are efficient for short fibers. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Factors controlling sperm production in members of the Orthoptera have not been fully elucidated. In this study, the influence of intermating interval and ad libidum mating on sperm number was investigated in black field crickets (Teleogryllus commodus). Remating at a variety of time intervals was not characterized by a significant change in sperm number compared with the first mating. Ad libitum mating (i.e., continuous availability of unmated females) had two main effects on spermatophore production and sperm number: first, there was a trend toward increased time between copulations with each successive remating, and second, the number of spermatozoa encapsulated in the transferred spermatophore declined after most rematings, with 61.8% of the initial sperm number being produced for the second spermatophore and 51.3% of the initial sperm number being produced for the third. The decrease in mean sperm number was accompanied by increased variance in sperm number in later rematings. This study suggests that males are willing to suffer a decrease in sperm number if a mating opportunity occurs before the completion of sperm production. © 2011, The American Microscopical Society, Inc.


A theoretical model was developed which allows the generation of irregularly shaped aggregate particles due to the stepwise joining of spherical components with variable diameters. The mathematical approach is mainly thought to act as a supporting tool for the simulation of the transport and deposition behaviour of combustion aerosols in the atmosphere and the human respiratory tract. In combination with aggregate construction essential particle parameters (dynamic shape factor χ, aerodynamic diameter dae) are computed using the model. As a main result of aggregate generation, an increasing particle size, expressed by an increasing number of spherical components, leads to an enhancement of χ and dae, whereby values of the first parameter range from 2 to 70. Deposition of small aggregates (sizes between 2 and 200nm) in the human respiratory tract is commonly marked by high rates of bronchial particle accumulation (40-60%) and declined rates of extrathoracic (20-30%) and alveolar accumulation (2-15%). Concerning aggregate deposition by airway generation, increased cluster size causes a significant decrease of particle accumulation in the proximal airways, whilst accumulation in the intermediate to distal airways is dramatically enhanced. The model was validated using experimental deposition data of tobacco smoke. An excellent correspondence between experimental and theoretical results was found. © 2010.


Sturm R.,Brunnleitenweg 41
Journal of Thoracic Disease | Year: 2012

Introduction: Deposition and clearance of carcinogenic particles in the lungs of subjects belonging to four different age groups (infants, children, adolescents, and adults) were theoretically investigated. The study is thought to contribute to the improvement of our knowledge concerning the behaviour of inhaled particles in lungs that may be attributed to different stages of development. Methods: Particle deposition and clearance were simulated by using a well established stochastic lung model, allowing the generation of nearly realistic scenarios. For the computation of particle deposition all main deposition forces were considered. Additionally, any influences on particle behaviour due to particle geometry were covered by using the aerodynamic diameter concept. Particle clearance was simulated by defining both a fast mucociliary clearance phase and a slow bronchial/alveolar clearance phase, the latter of which is based on previously published models and suggestions. Results: As clearly provided by the modelling computations, lung deposition of particles with aerodynamic diameters ranging from 1 nm to 10 um may significantly differ between the studied age groups. Whilst in infants and children most particles are accumulated in the extrathoracic region and in the upper bronchi, in adolescents and adults high percentages of inhaled particular substances may also reach the lower bronchi and alveoli. Although mucus velocities are significandy lower in young subjects compared to the older ones, fast clearance is more efficient in small lungs due to the shorter clearance paths that have to be passed. Slow clearance is commonly characterized by insignificant discrepancies between the age groups. Conclusions: From the study presented here it may be concluded that particle behaviour in infants' and children's lungs has to be regarded in a different light with respect to that in adolescents and adults. Although young subjects possess natural mechanisms of protecting their lungs from hazardous aerosols (e.g., expressed by breathing behaviour and lung size), they are much more sensitive to any particle exposure, since particle concentrations per lung tissue area may reach alarming values within a short period of inhalation. © Pioneer Bioscience Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

Loading Brunnleitenweg 41 collaborators
Loading Brunnleitenweg 41 collaborators