Brunel University London is a public research university located in Uxbridge, London, United Kingdom. It was founded in 1966 and is named after the Victorian engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel.Brunel is a campus university located on the outskirts of Uxbridge. It is organised into 3 colleges and three major research institutes, a structure adopted in August 2014 which also saw its name officially changed to Brunel University London. Brunel has around 15,200 full-time students and 2,500 staff and had a total income of £178.5 million in 2010/11, of which £14.8 million came from research grants and contracts. In 1957 Brunel College of Technology separated from Acton Technical College with a focus on the education of engineers. Brunel College of Technology was awarded the status of College of Advanced Technology in 1960 and became Brunel College of Advanced Technology in 1962. In June 1966 Brunel College of Advanced Technology was awarded a Royal Charter and became Brunel University London. It is sometimes described as a British "plate glass university".Brunel is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the European University Association and Universities UK. Wikipedia.
Fan Z.,Brunel University
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science | Year: 2013
In this article, we present an epitaxial model for heterogeneous nucleation on potent substrates. It is proposed that heterogeneous nucleation of the solid phase (S) on a potent substrate (N) occurs by epitaxial growth of a pseudomorphic solid (PS) layer on the substrate surface under a critical undercooling (ΔT c). The PS layer with a coherent PS/N interface mimics the atomic arrangement of the substrate, giving rise to a linear increase of misfit strain energy with layer thickness. At a critical thickness (h c), elastic strain energy reaches a critical level, at which point, misfit dislocations are created to release the elastic strain energy in the PS layer. This converts the strained PS layer to a strainless solid (S), and changes the initial coherent PS/N interface into a semicoherent S/N interface. Beyond this critical thickness, further growth will be strainless, and solidification enters the growth stage. It is shown analytically that the lattice misfit (f) between the solid and the substrate has a strong influence on both h c and ΔT c; h c decreases; and ΔT c increases with increasing lattice misfit. This epitaxial nucleation model will be used to explain qualitatively the generally accepted experimental findings on grain refinement in the literature and to analyze the general approaches to effective grain refinement. © 2012 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International. Source
Ceschin F.,Brunel University
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013
Eco-efficient Product-Service System (PSS) innovations represent a promising approach to sustainability. However the adoption of such business strategies is still very limited because it often involves significant corporate, cultural and regulatory barriers. An important challenge is not only to conceive eco-efficient PSS concepts, but also to understand the contextual conditions that facilitate their societal embedding, and which strategies and development pathways are the most appropriate. The combination of theoretical insights from innovation studies (in particular Strategic Niche Management and Transition Management) and a case studies research (exploring the innovation journeys made by six companies in introducing their eco-efficient PSS innovations in the market) is used to investigate the factors that influence the implementation and diffusion of this kind of innovations. The article provides a structured overview of these factors, grouping them in four clusters: implementation of socio-technical experiments; establishment of a broad network of actors; building up of a shared project vision; creation of room for broad and reflexive learning processes. Based on these results it is argued that a broader and more strategic system approach should be adopted by companies. Companies should focus not only on the PSS solution and its value chain, but also on the contextual conditions that may favour or hinder the societal embedding of the PSS itself. The article concludes by outlining a key area for future research. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source
Kortenkamp A.,Brunel University
Current Opinion in Pharmacology | Year: 2014
Today's chemical exposures are characterised by a widely spread blanket of contamination composed of myriads of chemicals, many of them endocrine disrupters, all at rather low levels. With their focus on considering single chemicals one by one, the approaches used by regulatory bodies worldwide for safety assessments of chemicals cannot keep up with these pollution patterns. A substantial challenge lies in the assessment of combination effects from large numbers of endocrine disrupters and other chemicals, all at low doses. We retrace the development of experimental and conceptual approaches required for assessing low dose mixtures, with an emphasis on work with endocrine disrupting chemicals. We find that nearly 20 years of research has produced good evidence for combination effects at levels around experimental thresholds. One obstacle in deciding on the relevance of this evidence is incomplete information about the range of endocrine-disrupting chemicals that make up combined exposures. These knowledge gaps need to be closed urgently, as is currently discussed under the heading of exposome research. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source
Brunel University | Date: 2011-11-02
An air connector is described mountable opposite an intake or exhaust port in an associated intake or exhaust pipe of an internal combustion engine to allow the port to communicate selectively with the associated pipe and with a compressed air storage tank. The connector comprises a stopper mounted on a rod movable by an actuator between an open position in which the port communicates with the associated pipe and a closed position in which the stopper seals around the entrance of the port to isolate the port from the associated pipe. An air passage is provided in the stopper and the rod to allow communication between the port and the compressed air storage tank when the stopper is in the closed position, and a check valve is arranged in the air passage and biased in a direction to prevent escape of air from the compressed air storage tank in all positions of the stopper.
Brunel University | Date: 2013-08-09
A method of producing a master alloy for refining the grain size of a bulk alloy comprises the step of providing an AlB alloy and adding Nb in elemental form to form an AlNbB master alloy. The AlB alloy may be prepared by providing an AlB alloy with a higher boron content than is required and diluting it with elemental aluminium.