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Fuchs G.,Weizmann Institute of Science | Shema E.,Weizmann Institute of Science | Vesterman R.,Weizmann Institute of Science | Kotler E.,Weizmann Institute of Science | And 15 more authors.
Molecular Cell | Year: 2012

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) maintain high genomic plasticity, which is essential for their capacity to enter diverse differentiation pathways. Posttranscriptional modifications of chromatin histones play a pivotal role in maintaining this plasticity. We now report that one such modification, monoubiquitylation of histone H2B on lysine 120 (H2Bub1), catalyzed by the E3 ligase RNF20, increases during ESC differentiation and is required for efficient execution of this process. This increase is particularly important for the transcriptional induction of relatively long genes during ESC differentiation. Furthermore, we identify the deubiquitinase USP44 as a negative regulator of H2B ubiquitylation, whose downregulation during ESC differentiation contributes to the increase in H2Bub1. Our findings suggest that optimal ESC differentiation requires dynamic changes in H2B ubiquitylation patterns, which must occur in a timely and well-coordinated manner. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


Chen H.,Medical Research Council Toxicology Unit | Shalom-Feuerstein R.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Shalom-Feuerstein R.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Shalom-Feuerstein R.,Bruce Rappaport Institute of the Technion | And 14 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2010

The mammalian nervous system exerts essential control on many physiological processes in the organism and is itself controlled extensively by a variety of genetic regulatory mechanisms. microRNA (miR), an abundant class of small non-coding RNA, are emerging as important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in the brain. Increasing evidence indicates that miR regulate both the development and function of the nervous system. Moreover, deficiency in miR function has also been implicated in a number of neurological disorders. Expression profile analysis of miR is necessary to understand their complex role in the regulation of gene expression during the development and differentiation of cells. Here we present a comparative study of miR expression profiles in neuroblastoma, in cortical development, and in neuronal differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells. By microarray profiling in combination with real time PCR we show that miR-7 and miR-214 are modulated in neuronal differentiation (as compared to miR-1, -16 and -133a), and control neurite outgrowth in vitro. These findings provide an important step toward further elucidation of miR function and miR-related gene regulatory networks in the mammalian central nervous system. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Rouleau M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Rouleau M.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Medawar A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Medawar A.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | And 17 more authors.
Stem Cells | Year: 2011

p63, a member of the p53 family, is essential for skin morphogenesis and epithelial stem cell maintenance. Here, we report an unexpected role of TAp63 in cardiogenesis. p63 null mice exhibit severe defects in embryonic cardiac development, including dilation of both ventricles, a defect in trabeculation and abnormal septation. This was accompanied by myofibrillar disarray, mitochondrial disorganization, and reduction in spontaneous calcium spikes. By the use of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), we show that TAp63 deficiency prevents expression of pivotal cardiac genes and production of cardiomyocytes. TAp63 is expressed by endodermal cells. Coculture of p63-knockdown ESCs with wildtype ESCs, supplementation with Activin A, or overexpression of GATA-6 rescue cardiogenesis. Therefore, TAp63 acts in a non-cell-autonomous manner by modulating expression of endodermal factors. Our findings uncover a critical role for p63 in cardiogenesis that could be related to human heart disease. © AlphaMed Press. Source

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