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Portland, OR, United States

Cubbage F.,North Carolina State University | Koesbandana S.,North Carolina State University | Mac Donagh P.,National University of Misiones | Rubilar R.,University of Concepcion | And 17 more authors.
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2010

We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America - Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay - were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each country, with most having Internal Rates of Return (IRRs) of 20% per year or more, as did teak. Pinus species in South America were generally closer to 15%, except in Argentina, where they were 20%. IRRs were less, but still attractive for plantations of coniferous or deciduous species in China, South Africa, New Zealand, Indonesia, and the United States, ranging from 7% to 12%. Costs of wood production at the cost of capital of 8% per year were generally cheapest for countries with high rates of return and for pulpwood fiber production, which would favor vertically integrated firms in Latin America. But wood costs at stumpage market prices were much greater, making net wood costs for open market wood more similar among countries. In the Americas, Chile and Brazil had the most regulatory components of sustainable forest management, followed by Misiones, Argentina and Oregon in the U.S. New Zealand, the United States, and Chile had the best rankings regarding risk from political, commercial, war, or government actions and for the ease of doing business. Conversely, Venezuela, Indonesia, Colombia, and Argentina had high risk ratings, and Brazil, Indonesia, and Venezuela were ranked as more difficult countries for ease of business. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Smith S.B.,Portland State University | Smith S.B.,Dartmouth College | McKay J.E.,Portland State University | McKay J.E.,Bruce and Girard Inc. | And 5 more authors.
Urban Ecosystems | Year: 2016

Urbanization poses threats to earth’s biota, and retention of remnant native habitat in protected areas within expanding urban boundaries may help alleviate threats to wildlife. However, it is unclear for nearly all nonsynanthropic (i.e., not benefiting from an association with humans) species whether vital rates in urban habitats can sustain populations or if populations persist only through immigration from outside the urban boundary. We conducted a three-year study of spotted towhees (Aves: Pipilo maculatus) breeding in four undeveloped parks in Portland, OR, USA, to measure park-specific seasonal reproductive output (F) and annual adult survival (SA). We developed a stochastic model that combined F and SA with an estimate of first-year survival to measure population growth rate (λ) in all parks assumed to be closed to immigration. F differed among parks but SA did not. Relatively high F was possible because many pairs raised >1 brood/season. When combined with empirical estimates of survival through the 30-day period of post-fledging parental care (SD = 0.645), only 2 of 4 parks were self-sustaining (i.e., λ > 1.0). However, SD reflected substantial loss of fledglings to domestic cats (Felis catus). Assuming no loss to cats and either partial compensatory or additive mortality of fledglings substantially improved prospects of population persistence for declining (sink) populations. Moreover, allowing low levels of immigration to sinks reversed population declines in most parks even when vital rates were insufficient to maintain populations. Our results suggest that nonsynanthropic bird species can persist in urban landscapes, but also that offspring mortality in the post-fledging period may be a critical determinant of population viability. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York Source


Cubbage F.,North Carolina State University | Donagh P.M.,National University of Misiones | Balmelli G.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion Agropecuria Inia | Olmos V.M.,University of Georgia | And 18 more authors.
New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science | Year: 2014

Background: Prior research in 2005 and 2008 estimated planted forest investment returns for a set of countries and included some natural forest species in a few countries. This research has extended those analyses to a larger set of countries and focused on plantation species, for seven years. This research serves as a “benchmarking” exercise that helps identify comparative advantages among countries for timber investment returns, as well as other institutional, forestry, and policy factors that affect investments. Furthermore, it extends the analyses to examine the effects of land prices, environmental regulations, and increased productivity on timber investment returns, as well as comparing timber returns with traditional stock market returns. Methods: We estimated financial returns in 2005, 2008, and 2011 for a range of global timber plantation species and countries, using net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and Land Expectation Value (LEV)–or the Faustmann Formula–as criteria. Per the Faustmann approach, we excluded land costs initially, using a common real discount rate of 8% for all species in all countries to make equivalent comparisons. Results: Returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America–Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay–were substantial, as well as in China. In 2011, returns for Eucalyptus species were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each country, with most having IRRs of 14% per year or more. The IRRs for Pinus species in South America were slightly less, ranging from 8% to 12%, except for Brazil, where they were 19% to 23%. Internal rates of return ranged from 5% to 12% for plantations of coniferous or deciduous species in China, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia, Mexico, and the United States. Although lower than returns from South America, these would still be attractive to forest investors. Land costs and environmental regulations reduced plantation investment returns for all the countries studied, but the largest reductions were observed in South America. However, net returns these remained greater than for plantations in temperate forests. Conclusions: Trend analyses indicated that Brazil had the greatest increase in timber investment returns during the period examined; returns in other southern hemisphere countries remained fairly stable; and the US South had substantial decreases in returns. New Zealand, Australia, the United States, Chile, and Mexico had the best rankings regarding risk from political, commercial, or government actions and for the ease of doing business. Conversely, Venezuela, Colombia, and Argentina had high risk ratings, and Brazil and Venezuela were ranked as more difficult countries for ease of business. Recent government actions in several countries in South America, except Colombia, © 2014 Cubbage et al. Source


Dooley E.M.,University of Montana | Dooley E.M.,Bruce and Girard Inc. | Six D.L.,University of Montana
Environmental Entomology | Year: 2015

Exotic tree pathogens can cause devastating ecological effects on forests that can be exacerbated when infections increase the likelihood of attack by insects. Current high rates of mortality of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) are due to white pine blister rust caused by the exotic fungus, Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch, and the native mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins). These two mortality agents interact in whitebark pine; mountain pine beetle preferentially selects white pine blister rust-infected whitebark pine over healthy trees, and likelihood of attack has been observed to increase with infection severity. We examined attack and emergence rates, and size and sex ratio of mountain pine beetle in whitebark pines exhibiting varying white pine blister rust infection severities. Mountain pine beetle attack density was lowest on the most severely infected trees, but emergence rates and size of beetles from these trees were greater than those from uninfected and less severely infected trees. Low attack rates on severely infected whitebark pine may indicate these trees have lower defenses and that fewer beetle attacks are needed to kill them. Higher beetle emergence rates from severely infected trees may be due to low intraspecific competition resulting from low attack rates or differences in nutrient quality. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. Source


Parker K.B.,Bruce and Girard Inc. | Margerum R.D.,University of Oregon | Dedrick D.C.,Long Tom Watershed Council
Society and Natural Resources | Year: 2010

In the United States, watershed collaboratives are playing an increasingly important role in the management of natural resources. In the face of complex and divisive concerns, these groups provide a unique forum in which diverse stakeholders communicate information, develop shared goals, and pursue a collective vision for the health and stewardship of their local watershed (Koontz et al. 2004; Cheng and Daniels 2005; Bidwell and Ryan 2006). They depend upon the voluntary efforts of stakeholders who are representative of the range of people and organizations with an interest in the issues being addressed. Typically, a committee or board is responsible for managing the group, and in some cases the organization is a nonprofit corporation under U.S. tax law. Watershed collaboratives also have professional staff members who are essential for carrying out their work. These staff members are often employed as the sole employees, and a number of researchers have noted the importance of their roles in the performance of a group (Margerum 1999; Leach and Pelkey 2001; Margerum 2002; Leach and Sabatier 2003). One issue that has not been extensively studied is the relationship between the lead staff person (hereafter coordinator) and the governing committee (hereafter board). © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

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