Providence, RI, United States
Providence, RI, United States

Brown University is a private Ivy League research university in Providence, Rhode Island.Founded in 1764 as "The College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations," Brown is the seventh-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges established before the American Revolution. At its foundation, Brown was the first college in the United States to accept students regardless of their religious affiliation. Its engineering program, established in 1847, was the first in what is now known as the Ivy League. Brown's New Curriculum—sometimes referred to in education theory as the Brown Curriculum—was adopted by faculty vote in 1969 after a period of student lobbying; the New Curriculum eliminated mandatory "general education" distribution requirements, made students "the architects of their own syllabus," and allowed them to take any course for a grade of satisfactory or unrecorded no-credit. In 1971, Brown's coordinate women's institution, Pembroke College was fully merged into the university.The undergraduate acceptance rate is among the country's most selective with an acceptance rate of 8.6% for the class of 2018. The University comprises The College, the Graduate School, Alpert Medical School, the School of Engineering, the School of Public Health, and the School of Professional Studies . Brown's international programs are organized through the Watson Institute for International Studies. The Brown/RISD Dual Degree Program, offered in conjunction with the Rhode Island School of Design, is a five-year course that awards degrees from both institutions.Brown's main campus is located in the College Hill Historic District in the city of Providence, the second largest city in New England. The University's neighborhood is a federally listed architectural district with a dense concentration of ancient buildings. On the western edge of the campus, Benefit Street contains "one of the finest cohesive collections of restored seventeenth- and eighteenth-century architecture in the United States".Brown University is home to many prominent alumni, known as Brunonians, including current president of the World Bank Jim Yong Kim and Chair of the Federal Reserve Janet Yellen. While considered a small research university, Brown has been affiliated with 7 Nobel laureates as students, faculty, or staff. It has been associated with 54 Rhodes Scholars, 5 National Humanities Medalists, 10 National Medal of Science laureates, and is a leading producer of Fulbright Scholars. Wikipedia.

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Brown University | Date: 2015-04-13

A portable monitoring device for whole-body monitoring can include a receiver configured to receive wireless signals representing real-time neural activity from a neural sensor and to process the wireless signals into digital signals. The portable monitoring device can also include a first processor coupled to the receiver configured to receive the digital signals from the receiver and a programmable processor coupled to the first processor. The programmable processor can be configured to process the digital signals and generate a mapping of the neural activity into a persons behavior, a persons mood, a persons health condition, a persons memory, or a persons intentions.

Methods using DNA Methylation arrays are provided for identifying a cell or mixture of cells and for quantification of alterations in distribution of cells in blood or in tissues, and for diagnosing, prognosing and treating disease conditions, particularly cancer. The methods use fresh and archival samples.

Brown University | Date: 2015-03-25

Systems, apparatuses, and methods for modulating light at high frequencies by addressing the issue of direct modulation of long lifetime light emitters. Dynamic control of the local density of optical states (LDOS) to exploit the differences between electric and magnetic dipole transitions allows for higher frequency modulation. The LDOS is controlled, in part, by designing a structure such that it enhances or suppresses electric and magnetic dipoles. Direct modulation may be achieved by designing the optical environment to adjust the interferences between the emitted light field and its own reflection at the emitters location. The optical environment may include light emission material, switchable material, spacer materials, and reflective materials. The structures creating the optical environment enable a new nanometer-scale architecture for on-chip ultrafast directly modulated light sources, which could be easily integrated locally on a range of nanoelectronic and nanophotonic structures, along with light-emitting diodes, waveguides, and fiber optics.

Brown University | Date: 2015-04-14

A musical instrument for electronically producing music from audio segments. The musical instrument comprises: an apparatus having a first surface; a plurality of selectable elements disposed in a substantially circular geometry on the first surface; and at least one memory storing the plurality of audio segments, each of the plurality of audio segments being associated with a respective selectable element in the plurality of selectable elements, wherein, in response to detecting selection of a subset of the plurality of selectable elements, the system is configured to generate music using audio segments in the plurality of audio segments that are associated with the selected subset of the plurality of selectable elements.

Brown University | Date: 2016-11-03

Disclosed are computer-readable devices, systems and methods for generating a model of a clothed body. The method includes generating a model of an unclothed human body, the model capturing a shape or a pose of the unclothed human body, determining two-dimensional contours associated with the model, and computing deformations by aligning a contour of a clothed human body with a contour of the unclothed human body. Based on the two-dimensional contours and the deformations, the method includes generating a first two-dimensional model of the unclothed human body, the first two-dimensional model factoring the deformations of the unclothed human body into one or more of a shape variation component, a viewpoint change, and a pose variation and learning an eigen-clothing model using principal component analysis applied to the deformations, wherein the eigen-clothing model classifies different types of clothing, to yield a second two-dimensional model of a clothed human body.

Brown University | Date: 2015-03-09

A system and method to capture the surface geometry a three-dimensional object in a scene using unsynchronized structured lighting is disclosed. The method and system includes a pattern projector configured and arranged to project a sequence of image patterns onto the scene at a pattern frame rate, a camera configured and arranged to capture a sequence of unsynchronized image patterns of the scene at an image capture rate, and a processor configured and arranged to synthesize a sequence of synchronized image frames from the unsynchronized image patterns of the scene. Each of the synchronized image frames corresponds to one image pattern of the sequence of image patterns.

Littman M.L.,Brown University
Nature | Year: 2015

Reinforcement learning is a branch of machine learning concerned with using experience gained through interacting with the world and evaluative feedback to improve a system's ability to make behavioural decisions. It has been called the artificial intelligence problem in a microcosm because learning algorithms must act autonomously to perform well and achieve their goals. Partly driven by the increasing availability of rich data, recent years have seen exciting advances in the theory and practice of reinforcement learning, including developments in fundamental technical areas such as generalization, planning, exploration and empirical methodology, leading to increasing applicability to real-life problems. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Cavanagh J.F.,University of New Mexico | Frank M.J.,Brown University
Trends in Cognitive Sciences | Year: 2014

Recent advancements in cognitive neuroscience have afforded a description of neural responses in terms of latent algorithmic operations. However, the adoption of this approach to human scalp electroencephalography (EEG) has been more limited, despite the ability of this methodology to quantify canonical neuronal processes. Here, we provide evidence that theta band activities over the midfrontal cortex appear to reflect a common computation used for realizing the need for cognitive control. Moreover, by virtue of inherent properties of field oscillations, these theta band processes may be used to communicate this need and subsequently implement such control across disparate brain regions. Thus, frontal theta is a compelling candidate mechanism by which emergent processes, such as 'cognitive control', may be biophysically realized. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Powers T.R.,Brown University
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2010

Motivated by the motion of biopolymers and membranes in solution, this article presents a formulation of the equations of motion for curves and surfaces in a viscous fluid. The focus is on geometrical aspects and simple variational methods for calculating internal stresses and forces, and the full nonlinear equations of motion are derived. In the case of membranes, particular attention is paid to the formulation of the equations of hydrodynamics on a curved, deforming surface. The formalism is illustrated by two simple case studies: (1) the twirling instability of straight elastic rod rotating in a viscous fluid and (2) the pearling and buckling instabilities of a tubular liposome or polymersome. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: Physiolg Mechansms&Biomechancs | Award Amount: 467.09K | Year: 2017

Most fish capture food by sucking it into their mouths, and successful suction feeding is both fast and forceful. Speed and force combined require high power from muscles, but where does all of that muscle power come from? Fish head muscles are small, but the body muscles are large. Do fish transfer power from their bodies to their heads, similar to the way baseball pitchers transfer power from their legs and core to their throwing arms? Recent developments in 3D X-ray imaging have made it possible to measure power directly, and this project will use the new technology, XROMM (X-ray Reconstruction of Moving Morphology), to study fish with diverse body forms and feeding habits. The significance of this research is a new framework for understanding the structure and function of body and head muscles in 30,000 species of fish (half of all vertebrate species), and the results will impact ongoing research in numerous labs worldwide studying the biomechanics, ecology and evolution of suction feeding. This project will engage children from the Providence RI public schools in an after-school Marine Biology Science Camp, providing an opportunity to do fun science projects with students from groups traditionally underrepresented in the sciences. This project will develop a new technology, VROMM (Video Reconstruction of Moving Morphology), with similar capabilities as XROMM but with video cameras instead of expensive X-ray machines. VROMM will accelerate research by making the technology more widely available and advance US economic competiveness through technological innovation.

A recent study of largemouth bass showed that axial muscles provide more than 95% of the power for high-performance suction feeding, but these results so far come from just one species. Might axial muscles be the main source of suction power in most fishes? The goal of this project is to measure the power capacity of cranial and axial musculature relative to the power required for suction feeding in six species of fishes with different body forms and distant phylogenetic relationships to largemouth bass. XROMM combined with the dynamic endocast method will be used to measure instantaneous rate of buccal volume change, and a pressure transducer will be used to measure buccal pressure. Pressure multiplied by the rate of volume change will yield instantaneous suction power. Optimal muscle power capacity (Popt) will be calculated from muscle mass and the maximum power produced by fish muscle, which assumes shortening at the optimal velocity. Actual muscle velocity will be measured with XROMM and fluoromicrometry, and velocity-corrected power capacity (Pvc) calculated. The Pvc for cranial and axial muscles will be compared to the power required for suction feeding to determine the maximum power that cranial muscles can contribute, and therefore the minimum power that axial muscles must be contributing. These results may provide a new framework for studying suction feeding, in which the anatomy, biomechanics, and evolution of the axial musculoskeletal system should be studied as the power source for feeding, or at least as compromises between the needs of swimming and feeding.

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