Brown University is a private Ivy League research university in Providence, Rhode Island.Founded in 1764 as "The College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations," Brown is the seventh-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges established before the American Revolution. At its foundation, Brown was the first college in the United States to accept students regardless of their religious affiliation. Its engineering program, established in 1847, was the first in what is now known as the Ivy League. Brown's New Curriculum—sometimes referred to in education theory as the Brown Curriculum—was adopted by faculty vote in 1969 after a period of student lobbying; the New Curriculum eliminated mandatory "general education" distribution requirements, made students "the architects of their own syllabus," and allowed them to take any course for a grade of satisfactory or unrecorded no-credit. In 1971, Brown's coordinate women's institution, Pembroke College was fully merged into the university.The undergraduate acceptance rate is among the country's most selective with an acceptance rate of 8.6% for the class of 2018. The University comprises The College, the Graduate School, Alpert Medical School, the School of Engineering, the School of Public Health, and the School of Professional Studies . Brown's international programs are organized through the Watson Institute for International Studies. The Brown/RISD Dual Degree Program, offered in conjunction with the Rhode Island School of Design, is a five-year course that awards degrees from both institutions.Brown's main campus is located in the College Hill Historic District in the city of Providence, the second largest city in New England. The University's neighborhood is a federally listed architectural district with a dense concentration of ancient buildings. On the western edge of the campus, Benefit Street contains "one of the finest cohesive collections of restored seventeenth- and eighteenth-century architecture in the United States".Brown University is home to many prominent alumni, known as Brunonians, including current president of the World Bank Jim Yong Kim and Chair of the Federal Reserve Janet Yellen. While considered a small research university, Brown has been affiliated with 7 Nobel laureates as students, faculty, or staff. It has been associated with 54 Rhodes Scholars, 5 National Humanities Medalists, 10 National Medal of Science laureates, and is a leading producer of Fulbright Scholars. Wikipedia.
Brown University | Date: 2015-04-13
A portable monitoring device for whole-body monitoring can include a receiver configured to receive wireless signals representing real-time neural activity from a neural sensor and to process the wireless signals into digital signals. The portable monitoring device can also include a first processor coupled to the receiver configured to receive the digital signals from the receiver and a programmable processor coupled to the first processor. The programmable processor can be configured to process the digital signals and generate a mapping of the neural activity into a persons behavior, a persons mood, a persons health condition, a persons memory, or a persons intentions.
Brown University and The Regents Of The University Of California | Date: 2016-09-21
Methods using DNA Methylation arrays are provided for identifying a cell or mixture of cells and for quantification of alterations in distribution of cells in blood or in tissues, and for diagnosing, prognosing and treating disease conditions, particularly cancer. The methods use fresh and archival samples.
Brown University | Date: 2015-03-25
Systems, apparatuses, and methods for modulating light at high frequencies by addressing the issue of direct modulation of long lifetime light emitters. Dynamic control of the local density of optical states (LDOS) to exploit the differences between electric and magnetic dipole transitions allows for higher frequency modulation. The LDOS is controlled, in part, by designing a structure such that it enhances or suppresses electric and magnetic dipoles. Direct modulation may be achieved by designing the optical environment to adjust the interferences between the emitted light field and its own reflection at the emitters location. The optical environment may include light emission material, switchable material, spacer materials, and reflective materials. The structures creating the optical environment enable a new nanometer-scale architecture for on-chip ultrafast directly modulated light sources, which could be easily integrated locally on a range of nanoelectronic and nanophotonic structures, along with light-emitting diodes, waveguides, and fiber optics.
Brown University | Date: 2015-04-14
A musical instrument for electronically producing music from audio segments. The musical instrument comprises: an apparatus having a first surface; a plurality of selectable elements disposed in a substantially circular geometry on the first surface; and at least one memory storing the plurality of audio segments, each of the plurality of audio segments being associated with a respective selectable element in the plurality of selectable elements, wherein, in response to detecting selection of a subset of the plurality of selectable elements, the system is configured to generate music using audio segments in the plurality of audio segments that are associated with the selected subset of the plurality of selectable elements.
Brown University | Date: 2016-11-03
Disclosed are computer-readable devices, systems and methods for generating a model of a clothed body. The method includes generating a model of an unclothed human body, the model capturing a shape or a pose of the unclothed human body, determining two-dimensional contours associated with the model, and computing deformations by aligning a contour of a clothed human body with a contour of the unclothed human body. Based on the two-dimensional contours and the deformations, the method includes generating a first two-dimensional model of the unclothed human body, the first two-dimensional model factoring the deformations of the unclothed human body into one or more of a shape variation component, a viewpoint change, and a pose variation and learning an eigen-clothing model using principal component analysis applied to the deformations, wherein the eigen-clothing model classifies different types of clothing, to yield a second two-dimensional model of a clothed human body.
Brown University | Date: 2015-03-09
A system and method to capture the surface geometry a three-dimensional object in a scene using unsynchronized structured lighting is disclosed. The method and system includes a pattern projector configured and arranged to project a sequence of image patterns onto the scene at a pattern frame rate, a camera configured and arranged to capture a sequence of unsynchronized image patterns of the scene at an image capture rate, and a processor configured and arranged to synthesize a sequence of synchronized image frames from the unsynchronized image patterns of the scene. Each of the synchronized image frames corresponds to one image pattern of the sequence of image patterns.
Song J.-H.,Brown University
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2017
Visual scenes are often complex and crowded with many different objects. To interact effectively, we must choose one object at a time as a goal for action. Certain external cues can act as a stop signal, quickly cancelling an ongoing action. Less recognized are internal signals. These can come from recent experience, anticipated action outcomes, cognitive states, and when attention is captured by a salient object. These signals elevate one action plan over alternatives and can quickly modify an initial choice. Here,we focus on these internal processes responsible for selecting, abandoning and modifying action plans. We first highlight how the brain resolves competition among multiple action plans. Critical is the existence of parallel motor planning processes, which allow efficient and timely changes. Then, we discuss how the action system interplays with perception, attention and memory processes to bias action selection and suppress or modify erroneous selections. Subsequently, we show how tracking the continuous modification of action trajectories can provide a tool to read out changes in internal cognitive states. Taken together, we shed light on a broader view that sensorimotor networks can continuously modify actions through simultaneous evaluation of alternative activities in concert with widely distributed perceptual and cognitive networks. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Littman M.L.,Brown University
Nature | Year: 2015
Reinforcement learning is a branch of machine learning concerned with using experience gained through interacting with the world and evaluative feedback to improve a system's ability to make behavioural decisions. It has been called the artificial intelligence problem in a microcosm because learning algorithms must act autonomously to perform well and achieve their goals. Partly driven by the increasing availability of rich data, recent years have seen exciting advances in the theory and practice of reinforcement learning, including developments in fundamental technical areas such as generalization, planning, exploration and empirical methodology, leading to increasing applicability to real-life problems. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Cavanagh J.F.,University of New Mexico |
Frank M.J.,Brown University
Trends in Cognitive Sciences | Year: 2014
Recent advancements in cognitive neuroscience have afforded a description of neural responses in terms of latent algorithmic operations. However, the adoption of this approach to human scalp electroencephalography (EEG) has been more limited, despite the ability of this methodology to quantify canonical neuronal processes. Here, we provide evidence that theta band activities over the midfrontal cortex appear to reflect a common computation used for realizing the need for cognitive control. Moreover, by virtue of inherent properties of field oscillations, these theta band processes may be used to communicate this need and subsequently implement such control across disparate brain regions. Thus, frontal theta is a compelling candidate mechanism by which emergent processes, such as 'cognitive control', may be biophysically realized. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Powers T.R.,Brown University
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2010
Motivated by the motion of biopolymers and membranes in solution, this article presents a formulation of the equations of motion for curves and surfaces in a viscous fluid. The focus is on geometrical aspects and simple variational methods for calculating internal stresses and forces, and the full nonlinear equations of motion are derived. In the case of membranes, particular attention is paid to the formulation of the equations of hydrodynamics on a curved, deforming surface. The formalism is illustrated by two simple case studies: (1) the twirling instability of straight elastic rod rotating in a viscous fluid and (2) the pearling and buckling instabilities of a tubular liposome or polymersome. © 2010 The American Physical Society.