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Burlakoti P.,North Dakota State University | Rivera V.,North Dakota State University | Secor G.A.,North Dakota State University | Qi A.,Brooms Barn Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2012

In all, 98 isolates of three Fusarium spp. (18 Fusarium oxysporum, 30 F. graminearum, and 50 Fusarium sp. nov.) obtained from sugar beet in Minnesota were characterized for pathogenicity and virulence on sugar beet in the greenhouse by a bare-root inoculation method. Among the 98 isolates tested, 80% of isolates were pathogenic: 83% of the F. oxysporum isolates, 57% of the F. graminearum isolates, and 92% of the Fusarium sp. nov. isolates. Symptoms varied from slight to moderate wilting of the foliage, interveinal chlorosis and necrosis, and vascular discoloration of the taproot without any external root symptoms. Among the pathogenic isolates, 14% were highly virulent and 12% were moderately virulent. Most of the highly virulent isolates (91%) and moderately virulent isolates (89%) were Fusarium sp. nov. All pathogenic isolates of F. graminearum and most pathogenic isolates (87%) of F. oxysporum were less virulent. In general, more-virulent isolates induced first foliar symptoms earlier compared with lessvirulent isolates. This study indicates that both F. oxysporum and Fusarium sp. nov. should be used in greenhouse and be present in field studies used for screening and developing sugar beet cultivars resistant to Fusarium yellows complex for Minnesota and North Dakota. © 2012 The American Phytopathological Society. Source

Champion G.,Brooms Barn Research Center
Journal fur Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit | Year: 2011

When the farm scale evaluations (FSE) of GMHT crops were initiated in the UK there was very little information in the UK on the variability of many farmland species within fields to inform the design of such trials. The original assumptions used in the calculations of site replication were tested using data collected in year 1 and 2. At this time the possibility of increasing site numbers in year 3 remained, but site replication was found to be sufficient. Upon completion of the trials, analyses of the data collected have validated the site replication and the power of the study to detect biologically important differences between conventional and GMHT management systems. Sub-samples of data corresponding to reduced sampling protocols at each site were analysed to investigate ways to reduce in-field sampling time whilst retaining the same precision as in the original scheme. The relative costs of the various protocols employed, both in staff time and financially have been published, as this too is an important constraint when planning any project. Besides producing the data necessary to test the null hypothesis, the FSE has also provided a significant body of information on the UK experience with the variability of farmland plants and invertebrates with a change in management practices, which is a key resource for future researchers in designing other field-based studies. © 2011 Bundesamt für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit (BVL). Source

Jaggard K.W.,Brooms Barn Research Center | Zhao F.-J.,Rothamsted Research
Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2011

Six field experiments were carried out in eastern England between 2003 and 2005 to test the effect of sulphur (S) fertilizer on the yield of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). The experiments were undertaken at sites where there had previously been a positive response to S in other crops or where no S-containing materials had been applied for more than 20 years. No individual experiment produced a significant positive response to S application, but the treatments that received no S fertilizer produced the smallest yield in five of the six experiments. Analysis across years using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) procedures showed that there was a positive and significant sugar yield response in beet of 0.56 t/ha where positive responses had previously been recorded in other crops grown on these loamy sand soils. Beet crops grown in soils of this type should receive S fertilizer that can be applied conveniently as sufficient ammonium sulphate to supply the first dressing of N. Copyright © 2010 Cambridge University Press. Source

May M.,Brooms Barn Research Center
Issues in Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Beet was first developed as a sugar producing crop in the late 16 th century. During the Napoleonic wars the naval blockade of France forced European countries to develop the crop. However, it was not until the 19th century that beet was finally established for sugar production in areas such as Europe, Scandinavia and North America. Sugar beet factories are generally efficient at produce a wide range of products as well as sugar. These include animal feed, medical products, foods and agricultural fertilisers. Sucrose production from sugar beet has always been subject to political influences and most countries operate under production quota systems. The fermentation of ethanol in beet factories helps to provide a partial solution to the problem of what to do with any excess sugar production. Sugar beet can also be a good substrate for biogas. The energy used per hectare to produce beet for biofuel is less than that for wheat or corn, but the main problem with beet is the difficulty of storage of the roots and, hence, provision of allyearround substrate for biofuel production. A limited amount of research is being undertaken to improve the opportunities for beet as a biofuel crop. © 2011 Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Dodd I.C.,Lancaster University | Whalley W.R.,Rothamsted Research | Ober E.S.,Brooms Barn Research Center | Parry M.A.J.,Rothamsted Research
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2011

Faced with the challenge of increasing global food production, there is the need to exploit all approaches to increasing crop yields. A major obstacle to boosting yields of wheat (an important staple in many parts of the world) is the availability and efficient use of water, since there is increasing stress on water resources used for agriculture globally, and also in parts of the UK. Improved soil and crop management and the development of new genotypes may increase wheat yields when water is limiting. Technical and scientific issues concerning management options such as irrigation and the use of growth-promoting rhizobacteria are explored, since these may allow the more efficient use of irrigation. Fundamental understanding of how crops sense and respond to multiple abiotic stresses can help improve the effective use of irrigation water. Experiments are needed to test the hypothesis that modifying wheat root system architecture (by increasing root proliferation deep in the soil profile) will allow greater soil water extraction thereby benefiting productivity and yield stability. Furthermore, better knowledge of plant and soil interactions and how below-ground and above-ground processes communicate within the plant can help identify traits and ultimately genes (or alleles) that will define genotypes that yield better under dry conditions. Developing new genotypes will take time and, therefore, these challenges need to be addressed now. © 2011 The Author. Source

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