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Cazander G.,Bronovo Hospital | Cazander G.,Leiden University | Pritchard D.I.,University of Nottingham | Nigam Y.,University of Swansea | And 2 more authors.
BioEssays | Year: 2013

In Europe ≈15,000 patients receive larval therapy for wound treatment annually. Over the past few years, clinical studies have demonstrated the success of larvae of Lucilia sericata as debridement agents. This is based on a combination of physical and biochemical actions. Laboratory investigations have advanced our understanding of the biochemical mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of larval secretions, including removal of dead tissue, reduction of the bacterial burden, and promotion of tissue regeneration. The present article summarizes our current understanding of the microbiological, immunological, and wound healing actions of larval therapy, and the molecules involved in these beneficial effects. Future studies will focus on the isolation, identification, and (pre)clinical testing of the effective molecules of L. sericata larvae. These molecules may be candidates for the development of new agents for the treatment of several infectious and inflammatory diseases, including chronic wounds. © 2013 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.


Vos M.S.,Bronovo Hospital | Putter H.,Leiden University | van Houwelingen H.C.,Leiden University
Lung Cancer | Year: 2011

Denial is a well-known phenomenon in clinical oncology practice. Yet whether the impact of denial on patient well-being is beneficial or harmful remains unknown. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the relationship between denial and social and emotional outcomes in a large sample of lung cancer patients over an extended time period.Denial and social and emotional outcomes were measured in 195 newly diagnosed lung cancer patients. Four assessments were conducted over 8 months. The level of denial was measured using the Denial of Cancer Interview. Patient-reported social and emotional outcomes were measured using the EORTC-QLQ-30 and the HADS.Patients with a moderate or increasing level of denial over time reported better social outcomes (role functioning: p=0.0036, social functioning: p=0.027) and less anxiety (p=0.0001) and depression (p=0.0019) than patients with a low level of denial. The overall quality of life was better among lung cancer patients who displayed either moderate or increasing levels of denial compared with those who displayed low levels of denial (p<0.0001).A certain level of denial in lung cancer patients can have a protective effect on social and emotional outcomes. Clinicians should take this into account when providing information about the illness and its prognosis. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Menkveld R.,Stellenbosch University | Holleboom C.A.G.,Bronovo Hospital | Rhemrev J.P.T.,Bronovo Hospital
Asian Journal of Andrology | Year: 2011

The measurement or evaluation and clinical significance of human sperm morphology has always been and still is a controversial aspect of the semen analysis for the determination of a male's fertility potential. In this review the background of the development of the evaluation criteria for sperm morphology will be discussed. Aspects of criticism on the strict criteria definition and use of the criteria for sperm morphology evaluation will be discussed as well as possible reasons for the decline in normal sperm morphology values and how we can compromise for this phenomenon resulting in the very low normal reference value as published in the 2010 WHO manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen. One of the possible solutions may be to give more attention to a limited number of abnormal sperm morphology categories and the inclusion of sperm morphology patterns. It is concluded in this review that if done correctly and with care and with strict application of existing guidelines as outlined in the 2010 WHO manual, sperm morphology measurement still has a very important role to play in the clinical evaluation of male fertility potential. © 2011 AJA, SIMM & SJTU. All rights reserved.


Douma M.R.,Red Cross | Verwey R.A.,Bronovo Hospital | Kam-Endtz C.E.,Bronovo Hospital | Van Der Linden P.D.,Tergooiziekenhuizen | Stienstra R.,Sint Maartenskliniek
British Journal of Anaesthesia | Year: 2010

Background. To compare the analgesic efficacy of remifentanil with meperidine and fentanyl in a patient-controlled setting (patient-controlled analgesia, PCA).MethodsParturients (n=159) were randomly assigned to receive remifentanil (n=52), meperidine (n=53), or fentanyl (n=54). Pain scores and an observer sedation scores were assessed hourly. Fetal outcome was evaluated with Apgar score, cord blood gas analysis and the Neurologic and Adaptive Capacity Score.ResultsPain scores decreased in all groups, the decrease varying from mild to moderate, average pain scores remaining above 4.5 cm in all groups. Remifentanil PCA was associated with the greatest decrease in pain scores, but the difference was significant only at 1 h. Pain scores returned towards baseline over time; 3 h after the initiation of treatment, pain scores no longer differed significantly from baseline values in any of the groups. Significantly more parturients receiving meperidine crossed over to epidural analgesia. Overall satisfaction scores were higher with remifentanil, but remifentanil produced more sedation and itching. More periods of desaturation (Sao2 <95) were observed during administration of remifentanil and fentanyl. There were no significant differences in fetal outcome between the three groups.ConclusionsThe efficacy of meperidine, fentanyl, and remifentanil PCA for labour analgesia varied from mild to moderate. Remifentanil PCA provided better analgesia than meperidine and fentanyl PCA, but only during the first hour of treatment. In all groups, pain scores returned to pre-treatment values within 3 h after the initiation of treatment.


Small for gestational age (SGA) is associated with increased neonatal morbidity and mortality. At present, evidence on whether these pregnancies should be managed expectantly or by induction is lacking. To get insight in current policy we analysed data of the National Dutch Perinatal Registry (PRN). We used data of all nulliparae between 2000 and 2005 with a singleton in cephalic presentation beyond 36+0 weeks, with a birth weight below the 10th percentile. We analysed two groups of pregnancies: (I) with isolated SGA and (II) with both SGA and hypertensive disorders. Onset of labour was related to route of delivery and neonatal outcome. Induction was associated with a higher risk of emergency caesarean section (CS), without improvement in neonatal outcome. For women with isolated SGA the relative risk of emergency CS after induction was 2.3 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 2.1 to 2.5) and for women with both SGA and hypertensive disorders the relative risk was 2.7 (95% CI 2.3 to 3.1). Induction in pregnancies complicated by SGA at term is associated with a higher risk of instrumental deliveries without improvement of neonatal outcome. Prospective studies are needed to determine the best strategy in suspected IUGR at term.


Tuijl J.P.,Bronovo Hospital | Scholte E.M.,Leiden University | De Craen A.J.M.,Leiden University | Van Der Mast R.C.,Leiden University
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Objective To investigate the performance and usability of the Six-Item Cognitive Impairment Test (6CIT) as a screening instrument for cognitive impairment in older, general hospital inpatients/outpatients. Method In 253 general hospital patients aged ≥ 70 years, diagnostic accuracy of the 6CIT and time required to administer it were assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) as the criterion standard. Results The (negative) correlation between the 6CIT and the MMSE was very high (r = -0.82). Optimal comparability was found using a MMSE cutoff of ≤19 for lower and a;circ23 for higher educated patients, at a cutoff of ≥11 on the 6CIT that was not sensitive to educational level. The sensitivity of the 6CIT was 0.90 and the specificity was 0.96, whereas the positive predictive value was 0.83 and the negative predictive value was 0.98. The area under the curve was 0.95. The mean administration time was 5.8 min for the MMSE and 2.5 min for the 6CIT (p ≤0.01). Conclusions Diagnostic accuracy of the 6CIT was high. As the 6CIT is not sensitive to educational level, does not require advanced language skills, only takes a few minutes to administer and is very easy to use, it appears to be a suitable screening instrument for cognitive impairment in older patients in the general hospital. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Cazander G.,Leiden University | Cazander G.,Bronovo Hospital | Jukema G.N.,University of Zürich | Nibbering P.H.,Leiden University
Clinical and Developmental Immunology | Year: 2012

Complement activation is needed to restore tissue injury; however, inappropriate activation of complement, as seen in chronic wounds can cause cell death and enhance inflammation, thus contributing to further injury and impaired wound healing. Therefore, attenuation of complement activation by specific inhibitors is considered as an innovative wound care strategy. Currently, the effects of several complement inhibitors, for example, the C3 inhibitor compstatin and several C1 and C5 inhibitors, are under investigation in patients with complement-mediated diseases. Although (pre)clinical research into the effects of these complement inhibitors on wound healing is limited, available data indicate that reduction of complement activation can improve wound healing. Moreover, medicine may take advantage of safe and effective agents that are produced by various microorganisms, symbionts, for example, medicinal maggots, and plants to attenuate complement activation. To conclude, for the development of new wound care strategies, (pre)clinical studies into the roles of complement and the effects of application of complement inhibitors in wound healing are required. © 2012 Gwendolyn Cazander et al.


Kornaat P.R.,Bronovo Hospital | Van De Velde S.K.,Leiden University
American Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: The clinical significance of an incidental finding of bone marrow edema (BME) on MRI in professional runners is poorly understood. Purpose: To investigate the prevalence and clinical and radiological progression of BME lesions in professional runners who consider themselves to be asymptomatic. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Sixteen athletes (13 men and 3 women; mean age, 22.9 ± 2.7 years) were recruited from the Dutch National Committee middle-distance and long-distance running selection. All athletes had been injury free for the year before the study. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained before the start of the season and at the end of the season. Both pubic bones, hips, knees, and ankles were scanned in a single session. Preseason and postseason Lysholm scores were obtained. Results: Fourteen of the 16 athletes had BME lesions before the start of the season (45 BME lesions in total). Most BME lesions (69%; 31/45) were located in the ankle joint and foot. More than half of the lesions (58%; 26/45) fluctuated during the season, with new lesions occurring (20%; 9/45) and old lesions disappearing (22%; 10/45). The few clinical complaints that occurred throughout the season were not related to the presence of BME lesions. Conclusion: Almost all asymptomatic athletes showed BME lesions, with more than half of the lesions fluctuating during the season. These data suggest that the incidental finding of a BME lesion on MRI of professional runners should not immediately be related to clinical complaints or lead to an altered training program. © 2014 The Author(s).


Tan M.,Section of Vascular Medicine | Mos I.C.M.,Section of Vascular Medicine | Klok F.A.,Section of Vascular Medicine | Klok F.A.,Bronovo hospital | Huisman M.V.,Section of Vascular Medicine
British Journal of Haematology | Year: 2011

The potential role of the detection of residual thrombosis after deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the differentiation of patients at risk for recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) has not yet been fully established and includes different definitions. We performed a systematic review in order to determine the role of residual thrombosis in predicting recurrent VTE after acute proximal DVT. Databases were searched until June 2010. Randomized, controlled trials or prospective cohort studies were eligible for inclusion if they included patients with objectively diagnosed proximal DVT, measured thrombus diameter after at least 3months and reported recurrent VTE during follow-up. Two authors independently reviewed articles and extracted data. Data from 11 studies were used for the current analysis; in total 3203 patients were included. Residual thrombosis was positively correlated with recurrent VTE. Large heterogeneity was present, due to differences in study population, timing and the differences in method of measuring residual thrombosis. The effect was more pronounced in patients with malignancy or was dependent on the criteria used. This systematic review shows a positive relationship between residual thrombosis and recurrent VTE during follow-up. Assessing residual thrombosis could be useful in individual recurrence risk estimation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Van Hooff C.C.D.,Bronovo Hospital | Verhage S.M.,Medisch Centrum Haaglanden | Hoogendoorn J.M.,Medisch Centrum Haaglanden
Foot and Ankle International | Year: 2015

Background: One of the factors contributing to long-term outcome of posterior malleolar fractures is the development of osteoarthritis. Based on biomechanical, cadaveric, and small population studies, fixation of posterior malleolar fracture fragments (PMFFs) is usually performed when fragment size exceeds 25-33%. However, the influence of fragment size on long-term clinical and radiological outcome size remains unclear. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 131 patients treated for an isolated ankle fracture with involvement of the posterior malleolus was performed. Mean follow-up was 6.9 (range, 2.5-15.9) years. Patients were divided into groups depending on size of the fragment, small (<5%, n = 20), medium (5-25%, n = 86), or large (>25%, n = 25), and presence of step-off after operative treatment. We have compared functional outcome measures (AOFAS, AAOS), pain (VAS), and dorsiflexion restriction compared to the contralateral ankle and the incidence of osteoarthritis on X-ray. Results: There were no nonunions, 56% of patients had no radiographic osteoarthritis, VAS was 10 of 100, and median clinical score was 90 of 100. More osteoarthritis occurred in ankle fractures with medium and large PMFFs compared to small fragments (small 16%, medium 48%, large 54%; P = .006). Also when comparing small with medium-sized fragments (P = .02), larger fragment size did not lead to a significantly decreased function (median AOFAS 95 vs 88, P = .16). If the PMFF size was >5%, osteoarthritis occurred more frequently when there was a postoperative step-off ≥1 mm in the tibiotalar joint surface (41% vs 61%, P = .02) (whether the posterior fragment had been fixed or not). In this group, fixing the PMFF did not influence development of osteoarthritis. However, in 42% of the cases with fixation of the fragment a postoperative step-off remained (vs 45% in the group without fixation). Conclusion: Osteoarthritis is 1 component of long-term outcome of malleolar fractures, and the results of this study demonstrate that there was more radiographic osteoarthritis in patients with medium and large posterior fragments than in those with small fragments. Radiographic osteoarthritis also occurred more frequently when postoperative step-off was 1 mm or more, whether the posterior fragment was fixed or not. However, clinical scores were not different for these groups. © The Author(s) 2015.

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