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Chicago Ridge, IL, United States

Lucas P.W.,Kuwait University | Casteren A.V.,Kuwait University | Al-Fadhalah K.,Kuwait University | Almusallam A.S.,Kuwait University | And 7 more authors.
Annales Zoologici Fennici | Year: 2014

The threat of wear to dental enamel from hard particles of silica or silicates may have exerted great selective pressure on mammals. Increasing the hardness of enamel helps to forestall this, but capacity for variation is small because the tissue is almost entirely composed of hydroxyapatite. Hard though it is, enamel also displays considerable toughness, which is important in setting the sharpness of particles (defined as an attack angle) necessary to wear it. Added to the threat from environmental silica(tes) are phytoliths, particles of opaline silica embedded in plant tissues. We show here that phytoliths have very different properties to grit and dust and are unlikely to wear enamel. However, phytoliths would tend to fracture between teeth under similar conditions, so resembling natural agents of wear. In this context, we suggest that phytoliths could represent an example of mimicry, forming an example of a feeding deterrent operating by deceit. © Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board 2014. © 2014 Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board. Source

Li Q.,Brodie Laboratory for Craniofacial Genetics | Li Q.,Jilin University | Pan S.,Harbin Medical University | Dangaria S.J.,Brodie Laboratory for Craniofacial Genetics | And 5 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2013

In the present study we have determined the suitability of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) as a complex scaffold for periodontal tissue regeneration. Replacing PRF with its major component fibrin increased mineralization in alveolar bone progenitors when compared to periodontal progenitors, suggesting that fibrin played a substantial role in PRF-induced osteogenic lineage differentiation. Moreover, there was a 3.6-fold increase in the early osteoblast transcription factor RUNX2 and a 3.1-fold reduction of the mineralization inhibitor MGP as a result of PRF application in alveolar bone progenitors, a trend not observed in periodontal progenitors. Subcutaneous implantation studies revealed that PRF readily integrated with surrounding tissues and was partially replaced with collagen fibers 2 weeks after implantation. Finally, clinical pilot studies in human patients documented an approximately 5 mm elevation of alveolar bone height in tandem with oral mucosal wound healing. Together, these studies suggest that PRF enhances osteogenic lineage differentiation of alveolar bone progenitors more than of periodontal progenitors by augmenting osteoblast differentiation, RUNX2 expression, and mineralized nodule formation via its principal component fibrin. They also document that PRF functions as a complex regenerative scaffold promoting both tissue-specific alveolar bone augmentation and surrounding periodontal soft tissue regeneration via progenitor-specific mechanisms. © 2013 Qi Li et al. Source

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