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Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC5-16-2014 | Award Amount: 4.98M | Year: 2015

The objective of the project SWOS is to develop a monitoring and information service focussing on wetland ecosystems. Globally wetlands are the ecosystems with the highest rate of loss. This is alarming, considering their significance as biodiversity hotspots and ecosystems with a central role in the water cycle, including improving water quality and reducing water scarcity, in climate regulation and the economic benefit gained from using their services. A key limitation to their more effective conservation, sustainable management and restoration is the missing knowledge underpinning the application of European policy by Member States. Under the Biodiversity Strategy, Member States have recently committed to the mapping and assessment of ecosystem services (MAES); this provides a key instrument for an improved integration of wetlands in policy. SWOS will take full advantage of the Sentinel satellites and integrate results from the ESA Globwetland projects. Status maps and indicators, as well as near real-time observations will allow the assessment of biodiversity and the monitoring of dynamic changes in an unmatched temporal and spatial resolution. The Service Portal will allow the integration and web-based analysis of new maps and in-situ measurements and provide a unique entry point to locate, access and connect existing information and databases. It follows a GEOSS compatible data-broker approach and adopts international standards. SWOS contributes to establishing a Global Wetland Observing System, as requested by Ramsar, it will facilitate local and EU monitoring tasks and input into international reporting obligations. SWOS will position Europe in a leading role for wetland activities within the GEO ecosystem, biodiversity, water, land cover tasks. The direct involvement of users working at different scales and support of key user organizations ensures the usability and acceptance of the service, the harmonization with related activities and a long-term impact.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IAPP | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2009-IAPP | Award Amount: 1.95M | Year: 2010

Europes list of achievements in space research and applications have largely delivered through collaboration in ESA and through national efforts. Establishing the GMES programme EU sustains a competitive infrastructure and knowledge to support Earth monitoring. The transfer of these capacities to the public sector and policy makers needs to be realized through active collaboration along the full Research and Technology value chain (research-development-customer/user). As the inland and near-coastal waters are under the strongest anthropogenic impact, there is a need for a better and more efficient way to monitor their ecological status & processes, which is the underlying scientific goal of this proposal. WaterS focuses on creating conditions for strategic dynamic partnerships in the form of long-term cooperation between three excellent research groups with proven high competence and capacity in the field of remote sensing of optically complex waters from Tartu Observatory (Estonia), Stockholm University (Sweden), Finnish Environment Institute (Finland), and three successful and quickly developing enterprises with unique complementary expertise and tools: Water Insight (The Netherlands); Brockmann Consult (Germany); Vattenfall Power Consult (Sweden). The advanced research programme of WaterS consortium will be realized through the following transfer of knowledge programme: Introduction of the state-of-the-art methods and knowledge in optically complex waters in Nordic waters by researchers of the academia to service developers in the industry; Supporting the development of new open-service concepts in EO business by exploiting complementary competences and synergy; Bringing together academic and industry partners in five countries to learn and get familiar with different research and business traditions, cultural aspects and skills requirements.

Tulldahl H.M.,Swedish Defence Research Agency | Philipson P.,Brockmann Geomatics Sweden AB | Kautsky H.,University of Stockholm | Wikstrom S.A.,AquaBiota Water Research
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

While land maps of vegetation cover and substrate types exist, similar underwater maps are rare or almost non-existing. We developed the use of airborne bathymetric lidar mapping and high resolution satellite data to a combined method for shallow sea floor classification. A classification accuracy of about 80% is possible for six classes of substrate and vegetation, when validated against field data taken from underwater video recordings. The method utilizes lidar data directly (topography, slopes) and as means for correction of image data for water depth and turbidity. In this paper we present results using WorldView-2 imagery and data from the HawkEye II lidar system in a Swedish archipelago area. © 2013 SPIE.

Philipson P.,Brockmann Geomatics Sweden AB | Kratzer S.,University of Stockholm | Ben Mustapha S.,University of Stockholm | Strombeck N.,Strombeck Consulting | Stelzer K.,Brockmann Consult GmbH
International Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2016

Lake Vänern, Sweden, is one of Europe’s largest lakes and has a historical, cultural, ecological as well as economic importance. Lake water quality monitoring is required by national and international legislations and directives, but present programmes are insufficient to meet the requirements. To complement in situ based monitoring, the possibility to obtain reliable information about spatial and temporal water quality trends in Lake Vänern from the ENVISAT mission’s MERIS instrument was evaluated. The complete archive (2002–2012) of MERIS (Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) full resolution data was processed using the water processor developed by Free University Berlin (FUB) to derive aerosol optical thickness (AOT), remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) and water quality parameters: chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration, coloured dissolved organic matter absorption at 443 nm (CDOM), and total suspended matter (TSM) concentration. The objective was to investigate if, either, FUB reflectance products in combination with potential lake-specific band ratio algorithms for water quality estimation, or directly, FUB water quality products, could complement the existing monitoring programme. Application of lake-specific band ratio algorithms requires high-quality reflectance products based on correctly estimated AOT. The FUB reflectance and AOT products were evaluated using Aerosol Robotic Network – Ocean Color (AERONET-OC) match-up data measured at station Pålgrunden in Lake Vänern. The mean absolute percentage differences (MAPDs) of the final reflectance retrievals at 413, 443, 490, 555, and 665 nm were 510%, 48%, 33%, 34%, and 33%, respectively, corresponding to a large positive bias in 413 nm, positive bias in 443–555 nm, and a negative bias in 665 nm. AOT was strongly overestimated in all bands. The FUB water quality products were evaluated using match-up in situ data of chl-a, filtered absorbance (AbsF(420)) and turbidity as AbsF(420) is related to CDOM and turbidity is strongly related to TSM. The in situ data was collected within the Swedish national and regional monitoring programmes. In order to widen the range of water constituents and add more data to the analysis, data from four large Swedish lakes (Vänern, Vättern, Mälaren, and Hjälmaren) was included in the analysis. High correlation (r ≥ 0.85) between in situ data and MERIS FUB derived water quality estimates were obtained, but the absolute levels were over- (chl-a) or under- (CDOM) estimated. TSM was retrieved without bias. Calibration algorithms were established for chl-a and CDOM based on the match-up data from all four lakes. After calibration of the MERIS FUB data, realistic time series could be derived that were well in line with in situ measurements. The MAPDs of the final retrievals of chl-a, AbsF(420) and Turbidity in Lake Vänern were 37%, 15%, and 35%, respectively, corresponding to mean absolute differences (MADs) of 0.9 µg l−1, 0.17 m−1, and 0.32 mg l−1 in absolute values. The partly inaccurate reflectance estimations in combination with both positive and negative bias imply that successful application of band ratio algorithms is unlikely. The high correlation between MERIS FUB water quality products and in situ data, on the other hand, shows a potential to complement present water quality monitoring programmes and improve the understanding and representability of the temporally and spatially sparse in situ observations. The monitoring potential shown in this study is applicable to the Sentinel-3 mission’s OLCI (Ocean Land Colour Instrument), which was launched by the European Space Agency (ESA) in February 2016 as a part of the EC Copernicus programme. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SPA.2012.1.1-05 | Award Amount: 2.54M | Year: 2013

The Global Lakes Sentinel Services project will set up a system that is able to handle large quantities of Sentinel 2 and 3 data. The focus will be on the ingestion, archiving, pre-processing and distribution of data and results in a harmonized and user friendly way. The GLaSS system will have innovative functionalities for integrated use of Sentinel 2 and 3 data, time series generation, data mining and further analysis. The quality of the GLaSS system and its products will be ensured by testing it against simulated datasets, and by validating the products through a number of field studies. In order to promote the take-up of Sentinel 2 and 3 products by a wide community of scientific and applied researchers, the GLaSS project will concentrate on the study of Global Lakes because lakes provide very relevant case studies, due to their high importance to society as supply of drinking and irrigation water, but also due to the fact that large lakes are often part of several countries with different socio-economic interest. Thus, our case studies will provide material for- and insights in the interdependence of technology and societal issues involved in Lake Management. Based on selected global case studies, the GLaSS project will produce sets of training material and courseware to make sure that interested researchers quickly can start using Sentinel and GLaSS products and services. The Advisory board is composed of eminent researchers in the field of optical remote sensing of water quality in three other continents. They will help to facilitate and participate in case studies of lakes in their areas of interest, thus ensuring the global dimension of GLaSS.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: EO-1-2016 | Award Amount: 1.63M | Year: 2016

CyanoLakes will be a global service for the environmental authorities and commercial sector, concerned by health risks and quality of water resources. The proposed project will deliver a fully automated application for assessing toxin producing cyanobacteria blooms in water resources globally, using ground-breaking Copernicus Earth Observation technology. The service foresees a dual dissemination system that provides user-specific information for monitoring and reporting purposes to customers, and a free and open information service for the public based on mobile telecommunication. South African and European SMEs will partner with users in the environmental authority and commercial sector, in order to establish a sustainable supply chain, based on a sound business model, to bring this innovative service to market.

Kratzer S.,University of Stockholm | Kratzer S.,Brockmann Consult GmbH | Therese Harvey E.,University of Stockholm | Philipson P.,Brockmann Geomatics Sweden AB
Marine Policy | Year: 2014

In this study the use of ocean color data as a diagnostic tool in integrated coastal zone management was investigated as part of the Science Policy Integration for Coastal Systems Assessment (SPICOSA) project. Parallel to this, an operational coastal monitoring system has been set up in close collaboration with end-users. The core work of the bio-optical part in the project was to develop Secchi depth and attenuation of light as indicators for coastal zone management, by linking remote sensing with the socio-economic and ecological model developed in SPICOSA. The article emphasizes the benefits of stakeholder involvement and end-user feedback for efficient and improved system development. Furthermore, conceptual models were developed on how to integrate remote sensing data into coastal zone management and into a physical-biological model of the Baltic Sea. One of the work packages in the SPICOSA project was academic training. In this work package, on-line teaching material in the field of remote sensing and bio-optics was developed and disseminated on the SETnet web page. The article presented here may act as supportive material for training in bio-optics and remote sensing. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Thulin S.,RMIT University | Thulin S.,Brockmann Geomatics Sweden AB | Hill M.J.,University of North Dakota | Held A.,CSIRO | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation | Year: 2012

Development of predictive relationships between hyperspectral reflectance and the chemical constituents of grassland vegetation could support routine remote sensing assessment of feed quality in standing pastures. In this study, partial least squares regression (PLSR) and spectral transforms are used to derive predictive models for estimation of crude protein and digestibility (quality), and lignin and cellulose (non-digestible fractions) from field-based spectral libraries and chemical assays acquired from diverse pasture sites in Victoria, Australia between 2000 and 2002. The best predictive models for feed quality were obtained with continuum removal with spectral bands normalised to the depth of absorption features for digestibility (adjusted R2 = 0.82, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) = 3.94), and continuum removal with spectral bands normalised to the area of the absorption features for crude protein (adjusted R2 = 0.62, RMSEP = 3.18) and cellulose (adjusted R2 = 0.73, RMSEP = 2.37). The results for lignin were poorer with the best performing model based on the first derivative of log transformed reflectance (adjusted R2 = 0.44, RMSEP = 1.87). The best models were dominated by first derivative transforms, and by limiting the models to significant variables with "Jackknifing". X-loading results identified wavelengths near or outside major absorption features as important predictors. This study showed that digestibility, as a broad measure of feed quality, could be effectively predicted from PLSR derived models of spectral reflectance derived from field spectroscopy. The models for cellulose and crude protein showed potential for qualitative assessment; however the results for lignin were poor. Implementation of spectral prediction models such as these, with hyperspectral sensors having a high signal to noise ratio, could deliver feed quality information to complement spatial biomass and growth data, and improve feed management for extensive grazing systems. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Sandstrom A.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Philipson P.,Brockmann Geomatics Sweden AB | Asp A.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Axenrot T.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2016

Remote sensing techniques may provide a higher temporal and spatial resolution than traditional water monitoring methods. We tested if this auxiliary information can be used to (i) explain patterns in fish assemblage composition and (ii) test candidate metrics to assess ecological status in large lake water bodies. We used MERIS-derived layers describing chlorophyll a, total suspended matter, and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) overlaid on all available fish monitoring data from the four largest Swedish lakes (Vänern, Vättern, Mälaren, and Hjälmaren). We assessed the influence of remote sensing-derived parameters in the pelagic, offshore benthic, and the inshore benthic habitats. Our results demonstrated that chlorophyll a and CDOM together with depth at the sampling site explained a significant part of the variation in the distribution of fish assemblages. These predictors were particularly important not only in pelagic, but also in inshore benthic areas. Furthermore, we identified three potential candidate metrics to assess pressure from eutrophication in large lakes: density of pelagic fishes, biomass of planktivorous species, and the proportion of cyprinids when roach was excluded. Remote sensing was considered a useful tool to support analyses of fish community composition and dynamics. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

Harvey E.T.,University of Stockholm | Kratzer S.,University of Stockholm | Philipson P.,Brockmann Geomatics Sweden AB
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2014

The coastal zones are the most inhabited areas of the world and are therefore strongly affected by humans, leading to undesirable environmental changes that may alter the ecosystems, such as eutrophication. In order to evaluate changes in the environment an effective water quality monitoring system for the coastal zones must be in place. The chlorophyll-a concentration is commonly used as a proxy for phytoplankton biomass and as indicator for eutrophication and it can be retrieved from ocean colour remote sensing data. Several operational monitoring systems based on remote sensing are in place to monitor the open sea and, to some extent, the coastal zones. However, evaluations of coastal monitoring systems based on satellite data are scarce. This paper compares the chlorophyll-a concentrations retrieved from an operational satellite system based on MERIS (Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrophotometer) data with ship-based monitoring for the productive seasons in 2008 and 2010, in a coastal area in the Baltic Sea. The comparisons showed that the satellite-based monitoring system is reliable and that the estimations of chlorophyll-a concentration are comparable to in situ measurements in terms of accuracy and quantitative retrieval. A very strong correlation was found between measurements from satellite-derived chlorophyll-a compared to in situ measurements taken close in time (0-3. days), with RMSE of 64% and a MNB of 17%. The comparison of the monthly means showed improved RMSE and a MNB of only 8%. Furthermore, this study shows that MERIS is better at capturing spatial dynamics and the extent of phytoplankton blooms than ship-based monitoring, since it has a synoptic view and higher temporal resolution. Satellite-based monitoring also increases the frequency of chlorophyll-a observations considerably, where the degree of improvement is dependent on the sampling frequency of the respective monitoring programme. Our results show that ocean colour remote sensing can, when combined with field sampling, provide an improved basis for more effective monitoring and management of the coastal zone. These results are important for eutrophication assessment and status classifications of water basins and can be applied to a larger extent within national and international agreements considering the coastal zones, e.g. the European Commission's Water Framework Directive. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

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