St. Catharines, Canada
St. Catharines, Canada

Brock University is a public research university located in St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada. It is the only university in Canada that is located in a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve, located at the centre of Canada's Niagara Peninsula on the Niagara Escarpment. The university bears the name of Maj.-General Sir Isaac Brock, who was responsible for defending Upper Canada against the United States during the War of 1812.Brock offers a wide range of programs at the undergraduate and graduate levels, including professional degrees. Brock was ranked 3rd among Canadian universities in the "undergraduate" category for research publication output and impact indicators in 2008. Brock University is the only school in Canada and internationally to offer the MICA program. Brock University's Department of Health science offers the only undergraduate degree in Public Health in Canada. At the graduate level, Brock offers 37 programs, including 6 PhD programs.Brock's Co-op program is Canada’s fifth-largest, and the third largest in Ontario as of 2011. Graduates enjoy one of the highest employment rates of all Ontario universities at 97.2 percent.Brock has 12 Canada Research Chairs and 9 faculty members which have received the 3MTeaching Fellowship Award, the only national award that recognizes teaching excellence and educational leadership. Wikipedia.

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Brudzynski S.M.,Brock University
Current Opinion in Neurobiology | Year: 2013

Adult rats emit two categories of ultrasonic vocalizations, 22. kHz calls and 50. kHz calls. These vocalizations communicate animal's emotional state to other members of the social group. Production of social vocalizations is an evolutionary old activity in vertebrates, and is regulated by well-preserved brain circuitries. The 22. kHz calls express negative, aversive state and are initiated by activity of the mesolimbic cholinergic system originating from laterodorsal tegmental nucleus. The 50. kHz calls express positive, appetitive state and are initiated by activity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system originating from the ventral tegmental area. The 22. kHz calls serve as warning and alarm calls, while the 50. kHz calls serve as affiliative and social-cooperating calls. These specie-specific vocalizations play role of ethological transmitters, termed ethotransmitters, that is, they are species-specific signals that are selectively recognized by receivers and have capability of changing emotional state of the receivers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Yu F.,Brock University | De Luca V.,Brock University
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2013

The Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) is highly specialized for the biosynthesis of many different monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs), many of which have powerful biological activities. Such MIAs include the commercially important chemotherapy drugs vinblastine, vincristine, and other synthetic derivatives that are derived from the coupling of catharanthine and vindoline. However, previous studies have shown that biosynthesis of these MIAs involves extensive movement of metabolites between specialized internal leaf cells and the leaf epidermis that require the involvement of unknown secretory processes for mobilizing catharanthine to the leaf surface and vindoline to internal leaf cells. Spatial separation of vindoline and catharanthine provides a clear explanation for the low levels of dimers that accumulate in intact plants. The present work describes the molecular cloning and functional identification of a unique catharanthine transporter (CrTPT2) that is expressed predominantly in the epidermis of young leaves. CrTPT2 gene expression is activated by treatment with catharanthine, and its in planta silencing redistributes catharanthine to increase the levels of catharanthine- vindoline drug dimers in the leaves. Phylogenetic analysis shows that CrTPT2 is closely related to a key transporter involved in cuticle assembly in plants and that may be unique to MIA-producing plant species, where it mediates secretion of alkaloids to the plant surface.

Bogaert A.F.,Brock University | Skorska M.,Brock University
Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology | Year: 2011

In 1996, psychologists Ray Blanchard and Anthony Bogaert found evidence that gay men have a greater number of older brothers than do heterosexual men. This " fraternal birth order" (FBO) effect has been replicated numerous times, including in non-Western samples. More recently, strong evidence has been found that the FBO effect is of prenatal origin. Although there is no direct support for the exact prenatal mechanism, the most plausible explanation may be immunological in origin, i.e., a mother develops an immune reaction against a substance important in male fetal development during pregnancy, and that this immune effect becomes increasingly likely with each male gestation. This immune effect is hypothesized to cause an alteration in (some) later born males' prenatal brain development. The target of the immune response may be molecules (i.e., Y-linked proteins) on the surface of male fetal brain cells, including in sites of the anterior hypothalamus, which has been linked to sexual orientation in other research. Antibodies might bind to these molecules and thus alter their role in typical sexual differentiation, leading some later born males to be attracted to men as opposed to women. Here we review evidence in favor of this hypothesis, including recent research showing that mothers of boys develop an immune response to one Y-linked protein (i.e., H-Y antigen; SMCY) important in male fetal development, and that this immune effect becomes increasingly likely with each additional boy to which a mother gives birth. We also discuss other Y-linked proteins that may be relevant if this hypothesis is correct. Finally, we discuss issues in testing the maternal immune hypothesis of FBO. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Brock University | Date: 2015-03-12

The present application discloses siloxane-containing hybrid materials. For example, the present application discloses siloxane-containing hybrid materials comprising cyclic siloxanes or polyhedral siloxanes such as polymeric siloxane-containing hybrid materials comprising cyclic siloxanes or polyhedral siloxanes, methods for preparing such siloxane-containing hybrid materials, the use of such siloxane-containing hybrid materials for coating a substrate, coatings comprising the polymeric siloxane-containing hybrid materials, composites comprising a film of the polymeric siloxane-containing material coated on a substrate and compounds which are useful in preparing the siloxane-containing hybrid materials.

The present application is directed to an efficient conversion of C-14 hydroxylated morphine alkaloids to various morphine analogs, such as naltrexone, naloxone and nalbuphone. One feature of this process is an intramolecular functional group transfer from the C-14 hydroxyl to the N-17 nitrogen atom following a palladium-catalyzed N-demethylation.

Brock University | Date: 2015-02-23

The present application relates to processes for the preparation of morphine compounds utilizing a novel intramolecular [4+2] cycloaddition reaction.

The present invention provides a method for the N-demethylation and N-functionalization of an N-methylated heterocycle such as a morphine alkaloid or tropane alkaloid. The method comprises reacting the heterocycle with an functionalization agent in the presence of a transition metal catalyst in air or in the presence of an oxidant.

Brock University | Date: 2016-07-13

A compound of Formula V---- represents a single or double bond, provided that two double bonds are not adjacent to each other;R^(1) and R^(2) are independently selected from C_(1-10)alkyl, C_(6-10)aryl, C_(3-10)cycloalkyl, C_(1-10)alkyleneC_(6-10)aryl, C_(1-10)alkyleneC_(3-10)cycloalkyl and PG, except when - -O represents =O, then R^(2) is not present;PG is a protecting group;R^(3) is selected from C_(3-10)cycloalkyl, C_(3-10)cycloalkenyl, C_(1-10)alkyl, C_(2-10)alkenyl, C_(6-10)aryl, C_(1-10)alkyleneC_(6-10)aryl and C_(1-10)alkyleneC_(3-10)cycloalkyl;X is a counteranion, andone or more available hydrogens in R^(1), R^(2) and R^(3) is/are optionally replaced with F and/or one or more of available atoms in R^(1), R^(2) and R^(3) is/are optionally replaced with an isotopic label,or a salt or solvate thereof.

The present application relates to methods and compounds for enhancing contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. The methods comprise administering compounds of Formula I(a) or I(b) to a subject and obtaining a magnetic resonance image of the subject. The present application also relates to methods of preparing compounds of the Formula I(a) as well as intermediate compounds used in such a method of preparation.

A high-yielding method for the N-demethylation of oxycodone- and oxymorphone-N-oxides by the reaction of these compounds with cyclodehydration reagents has been performed. This method has been utilized to improve the synthesis of various morphine analogs, such as naltrexone, nalbuphone and naloxone.

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