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Nîmes, France

Brugiere D.,BRL Ingenierie | Scholte P.,GIZ
Journal for Nature Conservation | Year: 2013

Chad is amongst the richest countries in terms of biodiversity in Sahelo-Sudanian Africa with some of the last remaining populations of large mammals that once roamed West-Central Africa. Its protected area (PA) system, made up of three national parks (NP) and seven faunal reserves (FR) and introduced 40 years ago to focus on the protection of large game, has never been reviewed in terms of biodiversity coverage. This study (i) assesses whether the PA network captures Chad's current biodiversity (focusing on ecoregions and threatened mammal species), (ii) identifies gaps in the PA system and (iii) proposes recommendations to improve the representativeness of the PA system, in a country characterised by the lack of biological data. Of the seven ecoregions in Chad, three are not covered by PAs and two are represented only once and have less than 10% of their area included in the PA network. Of the 31 large mammal species used in the analysis, five occur only once in the network and five species are not represented. Analysis of the persistence of species shows that, of the nine historical PAs, all have lost at least one (and up to six) species of large mammals. The Ouadi Rimé-Ouadi Achim FR was found to have the highest irreplaceability index, with the Bahr Salamat FR and Zakouma NP second and third respectively. Zakouma NP has the highest number of large mammal populations of an internationally important size. Threatened large mammals, many depending on large-scale migration, and (migratory) waterbird populations highlight the lack of wetlands in the formal PA system. We recommend a more effective protection of these wetlands, an extension of the PA system into ecoregions not covered by current PAs and provide details on the realignment of several of the PAs that have been encroached upon and are no longer viable. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. Source

Brugiere D.,BRL Ingenierie | Chardonnet B.,African Protected Areas and Wildlife | Scholte P.,GIZ GmbH
Tropical Conservation Science | Year: 2015

A number of recent studies have suggested that large carnivores are rapidly disappearing in West Africa, including in protected areas (PAs). The extent of this extinction process, however, is poorly known. Here, we quantify the extinction of three large carnivore species (Panthera leo (lion), Acinonyx jubatus (cheetah) and Lycaon pictus (wild dog)) in 41 West and Central African PAs by comparing historical and current data of occurrence. We found that lions have gone (near-) extinct in 23 out of the 38 PAs (63%) where they historically occurred and that extinction is significantly more pronounced in West (15 extinctions out of 18 historical occurrence, 64%) than in Central Africa (8/20, 40%). Cheetahs have disappeared from 11 out of 15 PAs (73% of site extinction). Wild dogs persist in only one PA in West Africa and two in Central Africa out of a total of 31 historical occurrences (90% of site extinction). For all three species combined, the number of extinctions in PAs in West Africa (33 out of 39 historical occurrences, i.e. 85% of site extinction) is significantly higher than in Central African PAs (29/45, i.e. 64%). Carnivore populations persist outside PAs in that latter region. Our study shows that PAs with remaining lion populations are significantly larger than those with extinct populations. However, we found that the human population density around PAs is not a good predictor of lion extinction. We suggest that the presence of mobile pastoralists may better explain the extinction pattern of large predators, and we recommend developing indicators of the pastoralism pressure to test that hypothesis. © David Brugière, Bertrand Chardonnet and Paul Scholte. Source

Brelle F.,Societe du Canal de Provence | Dressayre E.,BRL Ingenierie
Irrigation and Drainage | Year: 2014

For the last 10 years, food security has been coming back to centre stage as a major challenge for future decades. Financing irrigation and drainage is really a broad issue, each main component of which requires specific analysis: investment, operation, maintenance, renewal, rehabilitation and modernization. Questions, and thus answers, differ for funding infrastructures and for paying for water service. Financing setting up, rehabilitation or modernization, operation and maintenance of systems for collective irrigation are considered. The present paper aims to highlight the main lessons learnt from the past, analyse present constraints and trends, and propose in which directions to steer so as to take up the challenge of a sustainable increase in production of more and better food while better preserving ecosystems and natural resources. It asks the question of what should be the contribution from states or public authorities, in other words from all taxpayers or citizens. What can be the role of the private sector, either for financing, building and/or operating, in which cases and under what conditions? What should and can be the contribution of the water end users-and end payers. And what other conditions should be fulfilled for the various financing mechanisms to succeed, like the possible solidarity between usages according to their respective ability to pay? Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Rinaudo J.-D.,Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres | Maton L.,Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres | Terrason I.,BRL Ingenierie | Chazot S.,BRL Ingenierie | And 2 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2013

We discuss methodological issues related to the development of long term future agricultural water demand scenarios. We present the results of original research which combines the use of scenario workshops with quantitative crop water requirement modeling approaches. Using a Southern France case study, we describe four scenarios, debated with farmers and stakeholders during workshops and evaluated in terms of total water demand. Results suggest that socio-economic evolution could lead to a 40% increase of irrigation water demand. From a methodological perspective, the research highlights the mutual benefits for both policy makers and scientists of involving stakeholders in the development of scenarios, using both qualitative storylines and quantitative modeling tools. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

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