Brixham, United Kingdom
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Melzer D.,University of Exeter | Gates P.,University of Exeter | Osborn N.J.,University of Exeter | Henley W.E.,University of Plymouth | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Bisphenol A is widely used in food and drinks packaging. There is evidence of associations between raised urinary bisphenol A (uBPA) and increased incidence of reported cardiovascular diagnoses. Methodology/Principal Findings: To estimate associations between BPA exposure and angiographically graded coronary atherosclerosis. 591 patients participating in The Metabonomics and Genomics in Coronary Artery Disease (MaGiCAD) study in Cambridgeshire UK, comparing urinary BPA (uBPA) with grades of severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) on angiography. Linear models were adjusted for BMI, occupational social class and diabetes status. Severe (one to three vessel) CAD was present in 385 patients, 86 had intermediate disease (n = 86) and 120 had normal coronary arteries. The (unadjusted) median uBPA concentration was 1.28 ng/mL with normal coronary arteries, and 1.53 ng/mL with severe CAD. Compared to those with normal coronary arteries, uBPA concentration was significantly higher in those with severe CAD (OR per uBPA SD = 5.96 ng/ml OR = 1.43, CI 1.03 to 1.98, p = 0.033), and near significant for intermediate disease (OR = 1.69, CI 0.98 to 2.94, p = 0.061). There was no significant uBPA difference between patients with severe CAD (needing surgery) and the remaining groups combined. Conclusions/Significance: BPA exposure was higher in those with severe coronary artery stenoses compared to those with no vessel disease. Larger studies are needed to estimate true dose response relationships. The mechanisms underlying the association remain to be established. © 2012 Melzer et al.

Melzer D.,University of Exeter | Henley W.E.,University of Plymouth | Cipelli R.,University of Exeter | Young A.,Brixham Environmental Laboratory | And 7 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2012

Background-The endocrine-disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in food and beverage packaging. Higher urinary BPA concentrations were cross-sectionally associated with heart disease in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 and NHANES 2005-2006, independent of traditional risk factors. Methods and Results-We included 758 incident coronary artery disease (CAD) cases and 861 controls followed for 10.8 years from the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer-Norfolk UK. Respondents aged 40 to 74 years and free of CAD, stroke, or diabetes mellitus provided baseline spot urine samples. Urinary BPA concentrations (median value, 1.3 ng/mL) were low. Per-SD (4.56 ng/mL) increases in urinary BPA concentration were associated with incident CAD in age-, sex-, and urinary creatinine-adjusted models (n=1919; odds ratio=1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.24; P=0.017). With CAD risk factor adjustment (including education, occupational social class, body mass index category, systolic blood pressure, lipid concentrations, and exercise), the estimate was similar but narrowly missed 2-sided significance (n=1744; odds ratio=1.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.23; P=0.058). Sensitivity analyses with the fully adjusted model, excluding those with early CAD (<3-year follow-up), body mass index >30, or abnormal renal function or with additional adjustment for vitamin C, C-reactive protein, or alcohol consumption, all produced similar estimates, and all showed associations at P≤0.05. Conclusions-Associations between higher BPA exposure (reflected in higher urinary concentrations) and incident CAD during >10 years of follow-up showed trends similar to previously reported cross-sectional findings in the more highly exposed NHANES respondents. Further work is needed to accurately estimate the prospective exposure-response curve and to establish the underlying mechanisms. © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.

Dailey R.,Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co. | Daniel M.,Brixham Environmental Laboratory | Leber A.P.,Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co.
Chemosphere | Year: 2013

The chemical product diaryl-p-phenylene diamine (DAPD), produced by The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company as POLYSTAY 100® (CAS 68953-84-4), is employed as an antidegradant in polymers used in tires and industrial rubber products. Previous evaluations pertaining to the ecological fate of DAPD indicated a lack of biodegradative activity in aquatic media. In order to further pursue the biodegradation potential of DAPD, it was deemed necessary to enhance the sensitivity of the aquatic biodegradation assay through (a) employment of a radiotracer of the test substance, and (b) optimisation of conditions for achieving maximal solubilisation of test material in the aquatic media of the incubation vessels. Test vessels were prepared according to the OECD ready biodegradability test guidelines, with DAPD added on silica gel at concentrations of 10 or 100μgL-1, together with a surfactant to aid solubilisation. After 63d incubation up to 37% mineralisation was measured and up to 29% of the applied radioactivity was incorporated into cell biomass. Also, after 28d no DAPD could be measured in solution by radio-TLC and HPLC-MS. These three results demonstrate that the antioxidant DAPD undergoes microbiologically mediated biodegradation and is highly unlikely to persist in the environment. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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