News Article | April 21, 2017
It all started with a one-line entry - "Manuscript copy, on parchment, of the Declaration in Congress of the thirteen United States of America" - in the catalog of a tiny records office in the town of Chichester in the south of England. As part of an effort to assemble a database on every known edition of the Declaration of Independence, Emily Sneff, a researcher with the Declaration Resources Project, stumbled upon the listing in August 2015. And though she didn't think much of it at the time, that short description would set her and Danielle Allen, the James Bryant Conant University Professor and Director of the Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics, on a two-year journey into American history. "I'd found vague descriptions of other copies of the Declaration that turned out to be 19th century reproductions of the signed parchment in the National Archives, so that was what I was expecting," Sneff said, of her initial impression based on the catalog listing. "What struck me as significant was that it said manuscript on parchment." Sneff contacted the archive, the West Sussex Record Office, which was unable to send images of the document online, and instead mailed her a disc with photos of the document. "When I looked at it closely, I started to see details, like names that weren't in the right order - John Hancock isn't listed first, there's a mark at the top that looks like an erasure, the text has very little punctuation in it - and it's in a handwriting I hadn't seen before," she said. "As those details started adding up, I brought it to Danielle's attention and we realized this was different from any other copy we had seen." "We knew we had a mystery," Allen said. "We had a big, big mystery." "There are three key questions we want to answer," she continued. "One is: Can we date this parchment based on the material evidence? Second, who commissioned it and why, and third, how did it get to England?" Allen and Sneff are providing some answers to that mystery with a pair of papers. The first, which is currently in the final revision stage with the Papers of the Bibliographic Society of America, uses handwriting analysis, examination of the parchment preparation and styling, and spelling errors in the names of the signers to date the Sussex Declaration to the 1780s. The second paper, presented at a Yale University conference, argues that the document was probably commissioned by James Wilson of Pennsylvania, who later aided in drafting the Constitution and was among the original justices appointed to the Supreme Court. But the document isn't simply a previously-unknown piece of American history - it also affords Allen and Sneff a unique window into the political upheavals of the early Republic. In the immediate aftermath of its signing, Allen said, there was a period of "breaking news" in which the Declaration was reproduced and printed in a variety of formats as the news spread through the colonies and eventually made its way across the Atlantic to England. "The versions that people would have seen in July and August 1776 were broadsides and newspapers, starting with John Dunlap's broadsides, which was printed on the night of July 4," Sneff said. "Those copies would have made their way across to England as well - there are Dunlap broadsides in their National Archives." But it wasn't until approximately a decade later that the Sussex Declaration was produced, amidst what was one of the most challenging periods for the new nation. "Victory was not sweet," Allen said, describing the post-war atmosphere. "There was financial disaster, the Articles of Confederation were not working...so the 1780s were a period of great instability, despite victory. And this parchment belongs to that decade." Among the chief political debates of the era, Allen said, was whether the new nation had been founded on the basis of the authority of the people or the authority of the states. By re-ordering names of the signers, arguably the most conspicuous feature of the parchment, the Sussex Declaration comes down squarely on one side of the argument. On most documents, Allen said, the protocol was for members of each state delegation to sign together, with signatures typically running either down the page or from left to right, and with the names of the states labelling each group. An exception was made for a small number of particularly important documents - including the Declaration, which was signed from right to left, and which omitted the names of the states, though the names were still grouped by state. "But the Sussex Declaration scrambles the names so they are no longer grouped by state," Allen said. "It is the only version of the Declaration that does that, with the exception of an engraving from 1836 that derives from it. This is really a symbolic way of saying we are all one people or 'one community' to quote James Wilson." Going forward, Allen and Sneff will continue to pursue research into exactly how the parchment reached England from the U.S. Also, they are working on a project in collaboration with the West Sussex Record Office, the British Library and the Library of Congress to perform hyper-spectral imaging on the parchment and other non-invasive studies in the hope of reading some text that appears to have been scraped away at the top of the document.
News Article | March 11, 2017
The death of celebrated author Jane Austen has been subject to innumerable speculations, the most prominent of which is arsenic poisoning. No one really knows the true cause of her death, but there have been suppositions that she suffered from cataract, and may have died because of accidental arsenic poisoning. Sandra Tuppen, lead curator at British Library, on March 10 stated in a British Library blog post that Austen died due to arsenic poisoning. According to Tuppen, it is possible that Austen developed severe cataract due to accidental poisoning from heavy metals like arsenic. Jane Austen in her 41 years of life wrote six major novels which included the pathbreaking Emma and Pride and Prejudice. After Austen's death in 1817, her sister Cassandra inherited her writing desk along with three pairs of spectacles used by the late author, which were in the drawers of the desk. These possessions became family heirlooms and were handed down from one generation to other until in 1999, Jane Austen's great-great-great-niece Joan Austen-Leigh entrusted them over to the British Library. This is the first time that the British Library tested the spectacles with utmost care and it was revealed that all the three spectacles are of "Plus" power and of increasing strengths. The three pairs of spectacles were named: Wire-framed pair, Tortoiseshell pair A, and Tortoiseshell pair B According to optometrist Professor Simon Barnard, the variation in strength can be because of several reasons. He states that Austen may have always been farsighted and initially, used the wide framed pair with the lowest strength for reading and viewing at a distance. "She later required a slightly stronger pair (tortoiseshell pair A) for reading, and used the strongest pair (tortoiseshell pair B) for extremely close work, such as fine embroidery, which would have been held closer to the face than a book," states Tuppen in her blog post. Tuppen thinks that Austen's eye condition deteriorated as a result of accidental arsenic poisoning. It is a well-known fact that Austen suffered from poor eyesight as she has written about the same in many of her letters. Tuppen theorizes that the gradual decline in eyesight and need of stronger-powered glasses may have been a result of a health problem. Dr. Barnard doesn't rule out the possibility saying that undetected health problems can bring about changes in vision for both long-sighted and short-sighted individuals. Tuppen further elaborates her theory by saying that Arsenic poisoning was common in 19th-century England. Earlier in 2011, crime author Lindsay Ashford also suggested that the celebrated author died of arsenic poisoning. Ashford had earlier deduced this after going through Austen's account of an unusual face pigmentation she experienced at the end of her life. Tuppen says that the spectacles' power variations supports the same theory and states that "Austen suffered from arsenic poisoning, albeit accidental." © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.
News Article | May 15, 2017
A librarian in England has stumbled upon a rare page from the early days of book printing. The 540-year-old leaf comes from a medieval priests' handbook that had been printed by William Caxton, who introduced the printing press to England, according to a statement from the University of Reading. "I suspected it was special as soon as I saw it," said Erika Delbecque, a special collections librarian at the University of Reading, who found the paper hidden in an archive. "It is incredibly rare to find an unknown Caxton leaf, and astonishing that it has been under our noses for so long." [The 25 Most Mysterious Archaeological Finds on Earth] The double-sided page has black-letter typeface and red paragraph marks that gave it away as an early western European printing, according to the university. "The leaf had previously been pasted into another book for the undignified purpose of reinforcing its spine," Delbecque said in the statement. Delbecque and her colleagues figured out that in 1820 a librarian at the University of Cambridge saved the page from the book spine but apparently didn't realize its worth. The 15th-century leaf then ended up in a private collection that was purchased by the University of Reading 20 years ago. The page dates back to late 1476 or early 1477, when Caxton printed the handbook known as the "Sarum Ordinal" or "Sarum Pye." (The Bodleian Library at the University of Oxford has a copy of a poster advertising the manual, and claims it is the earliest surviving printed ad in English publishing history.) Priests consulted this Latin text for instructions on what biblical readings to use and how to dress at Mass on different religious feast days for English saints. First written by St. Osmund, the Bishop of Salisbury, in the 11th century, these guidelines were widely used in Britain during the Middle Ages, until the Protestant Reformation. The University of Reading librarians know of only one other set of fragments from the Caxton version of this handbook, in the form of eight pages from a different part of the text, housed at the British Library in London. After setting up his printing press in London in 1476, Caxton mass-produced books like Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales" and the first English versions of classics such as "Aesop's Fables," and Ovid's "Metamorphoses." Caxton is also often credited with printing some of the first Bible verses in English. "It is very rare that an unknown piece of printing by William Caxton is brought to light," Lotte Hellinga, former deputy keeper at the British Library and an expert on Caxton, said in a statement. "Its condition is good, considering that it spent some 300 years bound in the spine of a book and another 200 resting forgotten in an album of fragments rescued from other bindings." The University of Reading has the page on display in the school's Special Collections department this month.
News Article | May 24, 2017
What do bloodletting, slavery, journal editing and a silver penis protector have in common? The eighteenth-century physician, collector and president of the Royal Society Hans Sloane. In Collecting the World, historian James Delbourgo charts Sloane's rags-to-riches transformation, from his birth in 1660 into a family of domestic servants in the north of Ireland, to his death in 1753 as one of the most influential figures in England. Sloane became medic to the rich and famous and used his personal wealth to amass the most celebrated cabinet of curiosities of the age. Despite his celebrity in life, Sloane has managed to slip almost into obscurity: his name lives on mostly in a handful of street and place names, such as London's Sloane Square. And he remains a shadowy figure in Delbourgo's book. There is little about what he looked like, or about his family life — perhaps because his archives are full of letters to, rather than from, him. But Delbourgo sheds magnificent light on Sloane's larger world, providing great insight into the evolution of Britain's early scientific and global ambitions. At the age of 16, Sloane survived a “violent haemorrhage”, a formative experience from which he emerged with intense ambition. Moving from Ulster to London in 1679 to study medicine, he developed a talent for self-advancement. He exploited the close-knit Anglo-Irish diaspora to cultivate a connection with chemist and fellow of the Royal Society Robert Boyle, and was introduced to philosopher John Locke, naturalist John Ray and physician Thomas Sydenham. Within a decade, Sloane had emerged as a prominent London doctor, and in 1687 he travelled to Jamaica as physician to the island's new governor, the Duke of Albemarle. Sloane's timing couldn't have been better: he arrived as the island and its sugar plantations were beginning to assume a pivotal role in Britain's empire. Delbourgo does not shy away from the savagery of the slavery from which the colonists profited — violence and oppression that don't seem to have worried Sloane. Indeed, Sloane's description of public tortures and executions is “eerily dispassionate”. When not attending the duke, plantation owners or their slaves, Sloane indulged his dream of universal knowledge. This resulted in his natural history of the region: a lavish folio published in two volumes (in 1707 and 1725), filled with hundreds of detailed, life-sized engravings of local plants, animals and curios. The work set a new standard for scientific illustration, from which botanists such as Carl Linnaeus would benefit. Sloane distributed copies like calling cards, spreading his work and fame. There seems no limit to Sloane's curiosity, although he was scathing about witchcraft and magic, and paid special attention to anything that could be transformed into a commodity. Natural history, for him, was “a speculative exercise in scouring the globe for things that might seem odd or trivial ... but which could ultimately triumph in the discovery of prized new resources and goods”, writes Delbourgo. Sloane's account of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) is a perfect example of what Delbourgo calls “total commercial cataloguing”. The creatures were “reckon'd extraordinary food”; their cured flesh could last “without corruption ... never turning rancid”; the skeletons, ground to a powder, had medicinal properties; and the hides could be transformed into either fine shoes or “whips for beating slaves”. After his return to London in 1689, Sloane married the widow of one of Jamaica's foremost slave owners and bought property in on-the-up Chelsea. In spite of his reliance on treatments such as “superpurgations”, he seems to have killed fewer patients than other doctors of his day, bringing him a huge income and the presidency of the Royal College of Physicians in 1719. As the editor of the Royal Society's journal Philosophical Transactions, he became “one of the pivotal information brokers in the Republic of Letters”. Not everything he published was palatable to learned society — including a second-hand report of a 68-year-old woman who had breastfed her grandchildren. Such “vulgar wondermongering”, notes Delbourgo, led some to view him as gullible and guilty of distasteful self-promotion: Isaac Newton is said to have described Sloane as “a villain and rascal” and “a very tricking fellow”. This didn't stop Sloane from succeeding Newton as president of the Royal Society in 1727. “With exemplary sociability, redoubtable shrewdness and unflappable patience, he had installed himself at the centre of British society,” writes Delbourgo. As Sloane's star rose, he found it easier to access objects and anecdotes for his personal museum. With immense skill, Delbourgo mines Sloane's vast correspondence to uncover the global networks on which he relied to accumulate miscellanea. The number, variety and curious nature of these objects is enthralling; they include blocks of rock from the Giant's Causeway in Ireland, an arrow-shooter from Indonesia and that silver penis protector, from Panama. Sloane catalogued these and thousands of other books, coins, precious stones, animals and oddities. In his will, he drew up a guest list for his own funeral, and offered his collection to the nation, presumably as part of his “personal desire for immortality”, as Delbourgo puts it. In this mission, he seems to have failed: his name is today rarely linked to the British Museum, the British Library or the Natural History Museum, although all were founded from his collections. “Sloane is nowhere because he was everywhere,” suggests Delbourgo. Sloane's character doesn't lend itself to modern fame: his purging medicine and “hopelessly eclectic” brand of natural history are hard to fathom, and his collections have been buried in later acquisitions. In Collecting the World, Delbourgo brings brilliant resolution to the life and extraordinary times of a fascinating enigma.
News Article | May 26, 2017
The physician Santorio Santori, who lived between 1561 and 1636, came up with an accurate explanation for how matter works twenty years before Galileo. Handwritten notes made by Santorio in a 1625 edition of his own book Commentaria in primam Fen primi libri Canonis Avicennae (A Commentary on the First Fen of the First Book of Avicenna's Canon) show he realised matter was made from invisible 'corpuscles'. Although the Greek philosopher Democritus and others after him had already maintained the existence of such bodies, historians previously believed that nobody had come up with the proof for their existence before Galileo. The book, kept in the British Library, was found by Dr Fabrizio Bigotti, from the Centre for Medical History at the University of Exeter. The language used and handwriting style strongly suggest the notes were made by Santorio. Dr Bigotti said: "This discovery makes the case for a deeper study of early modern chemistry in the Medical School of Padua, where Santorio taught, and the work carried out there between the end of the sixteenth and the beginning of the seventeenth century. Santorio's true contribution to chemistry has been forgotten but, I hope, this new discovery means that will no longer be the case. "The notes show he did not see the world not made up of four elemental qualities - hot, cold, dry and moist - as Aristotle had suggested. This helped to start the process of getting rid of the idea that magic and the occult could be found in nature. "It is truly remarkable that, beyond his undoubted merits in science and early modern technology, Santorio also held very innovative ideas on chemistry and was so fully committed to investigating the structure of matter." Santorio had correctly identified the minimal structure of matter as a series of corpuscles as early as 1603, and proved his assumptions by means of a series of optical experiments on light, as well as distilling urine. All these experiments were carried out with instruments Santorio made especially for his own research. It was already known that Santorio laid the foundations for what is understood today as evidence-based medicine and the study of metabolism. The new discovery shows he was he among the first scientists to suggest the body aims at preserving its own balance through discharge of invisible particles. Dr Bigotti began researching the life and works of Santorio in 2013. His project is now funded by Wellcome Trust. He outlined this new discovery at an international conference organised with Professor Jonathan Barry, Co-director of the Centre for Medical History of the University of Exeter, in Pisa this month. Explore further: The next scientific breakthrough could come from the history books More information: Fabrizio Bigotti, A Previously Unknown Path to Corpuscularism in the Seventeenth Century: Santorio's Marginalia to the(1625), Ambix (2017). DOI: 10.1080/00026980.2017.1287550
News Article | May 26, 2017
Newly discovered notes show for the first time the Venetian doctor who invented the thermometer and helped lay the foundations for modern medical treatment also played a key role in shaping our understanding of chemistry. The physician Santorio Santori, who lived between 1561 and 1636, came up with an accurate explanation for how matter works twenty years before Galileo. Handwritten notes made by Santorio in a 1625 edition of his own book Commentaria in primam Fen primi libri Canonis Avicennae (A Commentary on the First Fen of the First Book of Avicenna's Canon) show he realised matter was made from invisible 'corpuscles'. Although the Greek philosopher Democritus and others after him had already maintained the existence of such bodies, historians previously believed that nobody had come up with the proof for their existence before Galileo. The book, kept in the British Library, was found by Dr Fabrizio Bigotti, from the Centre for Medical History at the University of Exeter. The language used and handwriting style strongly suggest the notes were made by Santorio. Dr Bigotti said: "This discovery makes the case for a deeper study of early modern chemistry in the Medical School of Padua, where Santorio taught, and the work carried out there between the end of the sixteenth and the beginning of the seventeenth century. Santorio's true contribution to chemistry has been forgotten but, I hope, this new discovery means that will no longer be the case. "The notes show he did not see the world not made up of four elemental qualities - hot, cold, dry and moist - as Aristotle had suggested. This helped to start the process of getting rid of the idea that magic and the occult could be found in nature. "It is truly remarkable that, beyond his undoubted merits in science and early modern technology, Santorio also held very innovative ideas on chemistry and was so fully committed to investigating the structure of matter." Santorio had correctly identified the minimal structure of matter as a series of corpuscles as early as 1603, and proved his assumptions by means of a series of optical experiments on light, as well as distilling urine. All these experiments were carried out with instruments Santorio made especially for his own research. It was already known that Santorio laid the foundations for what is understood today as evidence-based medicine and the study of metabolism. The new discovery shows he was he among the first scientists to suggest the body aims at preserving its own balance through discharge of invisible particles. Dr Bigotti began researching the life and works of Santorio in 2013. His project is now funded by Wellcome Trust. He outlined this new discovery at an international conference organised with Professor Jonathan Barry, Co-director of the Centre for Medical History of the University of Exeter, in Pisa this month.
News Article | May 9, 2017
Announcement follows Cogeco Peer 1’s partnership with Jisc and connection to Janet Network London. 9 May, 2017: Cogeco Peer 1, a globally recognised specialist provider of colocation, network connectivity, managed hosting, cloud and managed services, today announced its partnership with DTP Group (DTP), a leading provider of information technology solutions and services whose client list includes Imperial College, British Library, University of Liverpool and University of Manchester. The partnership follows the recent announcement that Cogeco Peer 1 has partnered with JISC to provide higher education institutions on the Janet Network with access to IT services. Cogeco Peer 1’s addition to the Janet network provides a direct connection to flexible, high-performance, bespoke, managed IT infrastructure solutions including colocation, hosting and cloud. DTP provides intelligent, ethical solutions that are practical, achievable and affordable and deliver real outcomes. Together, the two companies will be focused on helping organisations including higher education and research institutions to access and maximise the value of Janet-connected cloud, colocation, hosting, security and network services, augmenting their existing range of IT services. Susan Bowen, Vice President and General Manager, EMEA at Cogeco Peer 1 said: “Cogeco Peer 1 is working with JISC to provide the infrastructure to higher education and research institutions. DTP’s partnership, which is one of a number we will be cultivating, reflects our strategic commitment to provide a comprehensive, tailored and flexible range of solutions to the sector.” Bowen added: “DTP has outstanding credentials in higher education and has established itself as a leading provider of IT services to this sector. We look forward to working with DTP and its customers as they take advantage of the partnership between Cogeco Peer 1 and JISC.” Howard Hall, Group Managing Director at DTP said; “We are very impressed by the range of services and the approach that Cogeco Peer 1 is offering the higher education sector, specifically through its partnership with JISC. Through this partnership we will be able to work with our customers to ensure that the advantages of the DTP, Cogeco Peer 1 and JISC offering can be applied to full effect.” Universities and research establishments can now work with DTP and use their existing high speed Janet network to connect directly to Cogeco Peer 1 and a suite of infrastructure options from colocation, to hosting, to cloud. This choice and flexibility, combined with the expertise of DTP and Cogeco Peer 1’s teams will allow the UK’s higher education and research facilities to put in place bespoke suites of technology infrastructure that meet the demands they face today, and make the right choices to future-proof their IT architecture for tomorrow too. About Cogeco Peer 1: Cogeco Peer 1 is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cogeco Communications Inc. (TSX:CCA) and is a global provider of essential business-to-business products and services, such as colocation, network connectivity, managed hosting, cloud services and managed services, that allow customers across Canada, Mexico, the United States and Western Europe to focus on their core business. With 16 data centres, extensive FastFiber Network® and more than 50 points of presence in North America and Europe combined, Cogeco Peer 1 is a trusted partner to businesses small, medium and large, providing the ability to access, move, manage and store mission-critical data worldwide, backed by superior customer support. More information visit: www.cogecopeer1.com About DTP: DTP Group is an IT infrastructure and solutions specialist with expertise across cloud and infrastructure services, end user computing, and managed print and desktop services. As the sixth largest IT provider to Higher Education it provides innovative IT services and solutions to over 80% of the UKs Universities, as well as to the public sector and some of the largest UK businesses. With offices in Leeds, Central London, Wales and Scotland it offers nationwide coverage to its thousands of customers. For more information visit www.dtpgroup.co.uk.
News Article | February 16, 2017
LA JOLLA, CA, February 16, 2017-- Alexander Butterfield has been included in Marquis Who's Who since 1969. As in all Marquis Who's Who biographical volumes, individuals profiled are selected on the basis of current reference value. Factors such as position, noteworthy accomplishments, visibility, and prominence in a field are all taken into account during the selection process.Celebrating a career that has spanned just short of 70 years, Mr. Butterfield is highly regarded for his substantial contributions to both military tactical aviation and civil aviation safety. Further, and importantly, he is widely respected for his personal integrity and the example he set in the maintenance of high ethical standards during the tumultuous years of the "Watergate" political scandal (in 1973 and '74).After two years at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and a short stint in the Naval Air Reserve, Mr. Butterfield joined the U.S. Air Force as an aviation cadet in 1948 and became a rated pilot and commissioned Second Lieutenant on September 30, 1949. Preferring single engine fighter aircraft to larger, less maneuverable planes, he felt fortunate to be assigned initially to Las Vegas, Nevada, the home of the Air Force's fighter-gunnery training program. For two years he instructed there in both P-51 and F-80 aircraft, then was transferred to the 86th Fighter Group in occupied West Germany. Because NATO air power was beginning to expand, Mr. Butterfield (then a First Lieutenant) was tasked immediately with early planning for a full-scale air-to-air and air-to-ground fighter-gunnery training program for all U.S. Air Force tactical units in Central Europe . . . to be modeled similarly to the Air Force's Nevada program in which he had just recently served. Throughout the next 30 months, he renovated and brought up to USAF standards two long-dormant German ground gunnery ranges, wrote and disseminated to arriving squadrons a monthly fighter-gunnery newsletter, authored the first official Twelfth Air Force and U.S. Air Force, Europe "Fighter-Gunnery Training Manual," and spent several months in Tripoli, Libya, helping standardize procedures and techniques at the Air Force's aerial-gunnery encampment already underway. Simultaneously, Mr. Butterfield flew the right wing and deputy lead positions on the "Skyblazers," (America's only formation jet aerobatic team in Europe throughout the 1950's) and was a member of the six-man fighter-gunnery team that won the European Championship in 1954. After subsequent assignments as Operations Officer of an interceptor squadron, instructor at the new USAF Academy at Colorado Springs, senior aide to legendary General Emmett (Rosy) O'Donnell, Commander-in-Chief of Pacific Air Forces, and as Squadron Commander of a large tactical reconnaissance squadron in Japan, Mr. Butterfield found himself one of very few officers fortunate enough to have achieved, over the years, combat-ready status in all four categories of tactical military aviation: air-to-air; air-to-ground; all-weather intercept; and photographic reconnaissance. By 1964 he had flown 98 combat sorties in Southeast Asia, been awarded a Distinguished Flying Cross, Bronze Star and four Air Medals, and devised, in coordination with a Navy friend (Capt. M. M. Casey), Air Officer aboard the USS Kitty Hawk stationed off the South Vietnam coast, an emergency air-to-air refueling plan that operated flawlessly and might well have saved a number of reconnaissance aircraft on long return flights back to Saigon. He was a military parachutist by then, a Command Pilot with some 5,000 hours in fighter-type aircraft . . . and in his "military occupational specialty" (MOS), Tactical Fighter Operations, he had formed some strong opinions: (1) there should be more safety "consciousness" during training phases and fewer pointless rules issued, seemingly, in the guise of safety; (2) aggressiveness should be encouraged throughout all post-training flight operations. In short, pilots should know and be so familiar with the full range of their aircraft's capabilities that in the normal course of day-to-day flying they take advantage of those capabilities more or less intuitively. (On his final departure from Saigon, as if to make a statement, he led four RF-101 "Voodoos," in a formation take-off, high-speed climb, non-stop flight to Okinawa; and though having by-passed the mandatory fuel stop in the Philippines, landed safely with fuel to spare).Assignments and years came and went before Mr. Butterfield became associated with the civil side of aviation: special air warfare policy planner in the Pentagon; Military Assistant for White House Matters in the Immediate Office of the Secretary of Defense; promotion to Colonel while a student at the National War College; and Senior U.S. Military Officer and Commander-in-Chief Pacific Representative to the Government of the Commonwealth of Australia. Throughout the Australian duty, because the Australians had ordered from the United States twelve new swing-wing F-111 fighter-bombers, Colonel Butterfield, having flown and become familiar with the new aircraft and its unique capabilities, quite apart from his other duties, served as project and liaison officer with the Minister of Defense and the Royal Australian Air Force. After a decision in January 1969 to accept the offer of a presidential appointment by President-Elect Nixon, and the receipt of a Legion of Merit award from his immediate superior, Commander in Chief of the Pacific Command, Admiral John McCain, Colonel Butterfield left Canberra for Washington, D.C., where he was retired from active duty. On January 21, 1969, he was sworn in as Deputy Assistant to the President with duty as Deputy White House Chief of Staff and prime responsibility for the operation of the Oval Office and the smooth running of the President's official day. After serving in that capacity for four years, and additionally as Secretary to the Cabinet for the last three, Mr. Butterfield asked to leave the White House. In December 1972, he was nominated to serve as Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration and in March 1973 was unanimously confirmed by the Senate. With certain preconceived notions about the FAA, Mr. Butterfield sought to dampen the often defensive stance taken by the agency when confronted by public or media criticism, or by Transportation Safety Board recommendations. In fact, in his efforts to emphasize aviation safety, he ordered a thorough "second review" of all Transportation Safety Board recommendations received during the past five years. He also tried mightily to restructure the cumbersome, world-wide organization to reflect a greater emphasis on both air safety and survivability, and a new recognition that the nation's airports, as integral components of the national civil aviation system, require more regulatory attention; but resistance by the Department of Transportation (FAA's parent) was often overwhelming. He did initiate a series of highly successful "listening sessions" which gave all civil aviation constituencies an opportunity to convey constructive complaints and ideas directly to FAA senior managers; and he was widely applauded when in late 1973 he made compliance with all safety-related directives by the FAA immediately mandatory. By his own admission, Mr. Butterfield felt that his tenure at the helm of the FAA could have been more productive, and might have been had he not been injected by unforeseen circumstances into the chaos that was "Watergate." It was shortly after he arrived at the FAA that a member of the national media urged the Senate Select Committee investigating campaign finance and other activities to call Mr. Butterfield as a witness. The media representative knew what few others outside the White House knew -- that Mr. Butterfield was the sole deputy to White House Chief of Staff, Bob Haldeman. The plea was ignored at first, but eventually approved, and under questioning by the Senate (Watergate) Committee staff on Friday, July 13, 1973, Mr. Butterfield revealed that President Nixon had a secret taping system in the Oval Office and at several other White House locations. This information was confirmed the following Monday, July 16, before the full Committee, and was explosive. It was precisely the evidence needed to prove that the President had been aware of the White House cover-up of illegal activities all along, and that John Dean, the former Counsel to the President, had been telling the truth when a few weeks earlier he had accused the President of complicity. Mr. Butterfield who had complied with the President's order to surreptitiously install the White House listening devices back in early 1971 and who, for obvious reasons, had not wanted to testify, was put in a rather untenable position. He was confident, however, that if the subject of listening devices came up -- and there was no reason then to believe that it might -- he would be forthright and tell the truth, but only if the query were put to him (by his own interpretation) clearly and directly. After four hours of grilling, the precise question was asked, and there was no ambiguity. Though he had been aware of White House skullduggery, he was still a Nixon loyalist and it wounded him deeply to have to be the one to reveal what had been a well-kept presidential secret for more than two years. He said to the Committee, "I'm sorry you asked that question. Yes, there were listening devices. It was a fairly elaborate system." It seemed that the national log-jam had broken. Then, a year later - July 2, 1974 - Mr. Butterfield, still at the FAA, was called as the first of eight witnesses to come before the House Judiciary Committee during its deliberations of the President's impeachment. Time had passed and Mr. Butterfield had seen and been affected by, among other events, the number of friends -- young bright and well-meaning -- who were facing prison sentences and in some cases divorce. He later wrote, "They had simply been ensnared by the glitter and deceit of the presidency. Mr. Nixon, himself had exploited their loyalty." With a new and different mind-set, his 10-hour, closed door testimony was more damaging than not, and again he was seen by hardcore, but dwindling, numbers of Nixon friends as an "outsider." Mr. Butterfield resigned on March 31, 1975 after 26 years of federal service.To support his career, Mr. Butterfield earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Political Science from University of Maryland, a Master of Science degree in International Affairs from George Washington University and a Master of Arts degree in American History from the University of California. In the past, Mr. Butterfield was a member of the Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History and, for six years, a presidentially-appointed member of the National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board of the Smithsonian Institution. He was also a member in 1968 of a military-scientific expedition to the South Pole, chairman of Chancellor's Associates at the University of California, San Diego, a 38-year member of the Bel-Air County Club and a director of both Aloha Airlines and the International Flight Safety Foundation. Along the way, Mr. Butterfield contributed articles to the Journal of American History and to Harpers and other national magazines. Today, although retired, he remains active through his memberships in the Air Force Association, the Tailhook Association, the Thunderbird Alumni Association, the American Film Institute, the Screen Actors Guild and the University Club of San Diego. Most recently, he was selected for inclusion into other Who's Who publications: Who's Who in American Politics, Who's Who in Science, Who's Who in Engineering, Who's Who in the West and Who's Who in the World. In addition to his professional work, Mr. Butterfield is a prominent civic leader in the San Diego area, serving currently as a member of the Board of Directors of Dr. Seuss Enterprises, L.P., Vice-President of the Dr. Seuss Foundation, and as Chairman of the Institute for Brain and Society. And each year, in March, he lectures on "The Modern American Presidency" at several institutions in the United Kingdom, among them Warwick University in Coventry, the Rothermere American Institute at Oxford University, University College London and the British Library in London. Divorced in 1985, Mr. Butterfield lives alone in La Jolla, California and remains close to his former wife, their three children, eight grandchildren and five great-grandchildren.About Marquis Who's Who :Since 1899, when A. N. Marquis printed the First Edition of Who's Who in America , Marquis Who's Who has chronicled the lives of the most accomplished individuals and innovators from every significant field of endeavor, including politics, business, medicine, law, education, art, religion and entertainment. Today, Who's Who in America remains an essential biographical source for thousands of researchers, journalists, librarians and executive search firms around the world. Marquis now publishes many Who's Who titles, including Who's Who in America , Who's Who in the World , Who's Who in American Law , Who's Who in Medicine and Healthcare , Who's Who in Science and Engineering , and Who's Who in Asia . Marquis publications may be visited at the official Marquis Who's Who website at www.marquiswhoswho.com
News Article | October 31, 2016
Curzon Cinemas, the British Library and RSA Insurance have all signed up as living wage employers as the independently verified pay rate rises by nearly 4% in London. The voluntary benchmark pay rate for Londoners rises 35p an hour to £9.75 while the rate for the rest of the UK increases 2.4% to £8.45 an hour, from £8.25. Both rates are well ahead of the “national living wage” of £7.20 an hour – the new legal minimum wage for over 25s introduced by the government in April this year. The Living Wage Foundation, an independent body, sets the living wage based on research by the Resolution Foundation and the Living Wage Commission, which brings together employers, NGOs and unions, using evidence about what people need to meet their everyday basic costs. There are now about 3,000 employers signed up to the voluntary scheme, including Everton Football Club, which signed up this week, Ikea and Lloyds Banking Group. Katherine Chapman, director of the Living Wage Foundation, said: “Today’s new living wage rates bring a welcome pay rise to thousands of workers across the UK. One in five people earn less than the wage they need to get by. That’s why it’s more important than ever for leading employers to join the growing movement of businesses and organisations that are going further than the government minimum and making sure their employees earn enough to cover the cost of living.” She said that at least 120,000 workers had benefited since the campaign for a real living wage kicked off 15 years ago and the movement had helped prompt the government to introduce the “national living wage” this year, bringing the biggest lift in the minimum legal rate since the minimum wage was introduced in 1999. Announcing the new London rate at the British Library on Monday, the mayor of London, Sadiq Khan, said more than 1,000 businesses are now accredited living wage employers, a third of all the businesses signed up in the UK. The mayor said he intended to promote the rate as a way to help the capital become “a fairer and more equal city”. “I’m glad to say we’re well on track to see it rise to over £10 an hour during my mayoralty, but we need to go further and for many more businesses and organisations to sign up,” he said. Khan said he was auditing workers linked to City Hall to ensure everyone was paid the London living wage, after discovering that some subcontractors were being paid less. “Paying the London living wage is not just the right and moral thing to do, it makes good business sense too. As many employers already accredited know, the benefits are clear – including increased productivity and reduced staff turnover,” he said. The Curzon cinema chain becomes a fully accredited living wage employer after agreeing to pay London front of house staff the living wage two years ago. Fully accredited employers must ensure all staff they use, including subcontractors and agency workers, receive the living wage rate.
News Article | February 24, 2017
Tony and Maureen Wheeler co-founded Lonely Planet in 1973 after the couple travelled overland from London to Australia. The travel publisher, which has since printed more than 120 million books in 11 languages, sold a 75% stake in the business to BBC Worldwide in 2007. The Wheelers sold their remaining 25% stake in the company four years later. We intended to go around the world in a year, live in Sydney for three months and come back to London. But even before we arrived [in Australia] we thought we’d make it a longer trip and spend three years away. We drove from London to Afghanistan in an old minivan and then made our way through Asia to Australia. While we were living in Sydney, we’d meet people [who’d ask about the trip] and they’d say what did you do, how did you do this, and we’d jot notes down for them. Back then the phrase “gap year” hadn’t been invented. There were people doing it, but the numbers [were much smaller] than today. So the first book was an accident. We both had full-time jobs in Australia – I was managing market research for Bayer Pharmaceuticals and Maureen was a PA at a wine company – and worked on it during the evenings and weekends. Then I took a day off work and went to some bookshops and said, I’ve written this book, do you want to buy some copies? And they did. It was called Across Asia on the Cheap. It got a couple of good reviews, and it sold 1,500 copies in a week. That was just in Sydney, although we took it to Melbourne and further afield soon after. People liked it. We had to reprint it twice. We went travelling and bumped into people using it. When we wrote the second one two years later [Southeast Asia on a Shoestring], that had even more of an immediate reaction. The money we made from one book paid for the next one. We managed to grow the business bit by bit. They have a word for it now – bootstrapping. I always remember feeling very resentful about having to do things like pay an accountant. I thought, the money I’m paying them, I could be sending someone out to do another book. It wasn’t until the end of 1977 when suddenly there was money in the bank, [and we didn’t have to ask] every Friday, how are we going to pay for things? The India guide book in 1981 was a real breakthrough. With someone managing the office, we could get away for six months. Maureen and I, plus two writers, headed off with an advance of $1,000 each for expenses. The resulting book was three times as big, three times as high a price and it sold three times as many copies as previous titles. I’ve still got my heart in that book. It was a big project and we were really betting the whole shop on it. We got to the stage where the real problem was that we couldn’t be out there travelling and at home running the office. We got to 10 books and I had my name on five of them. If you did stay home and run the office, the books didn’t get written. So, a few years down the line, we got a friend who’d had his own publishing operation to come and manage the office for us. People were enthusiastic about what we were doing and were willing to do it for nothing. They’d turn up at the office and say, I could write a book about this place because I’ve lived there. We had no idea if they could write or not, but we’d say “ok, do it”. Competition is always a good thing. It keeps you on your toes. Brands get up and get their name out there now because of the instantaneous nature of the internet. [You can] jump from nothing to something with remarkable speed. But it takes a while to build a reputation. What really pleases me is that Lonely Planet is still going very well. It hasn’t made a complete shift into the digital world, but then there’s a lot of the digital world that doesn’t make money. What I like most is, even though we think of it as an English guide, it’s international. I think it always is. But businesses are like babies; they grow up and they have to stand on their own two feet. Plus there was this move into the digital world [and] I love books more. I love paper more than the screen. It’s still amazing [to see people using Lonely Planet guides]. It’s been nearly 10 years that it hasn’t been mine but I’ll go through the rest of my life thinking it is. I use the books a lot and if I find something that’s worth adding, I definitely tell them about it. I’m very lucky that they still ask me to do things, such as writing forewords and afterwords for books, or appearing at events. You’ve always got to be looking for something new. We had two advantages in the early days. Because we were small, we were deliberately looking for things other people weren’t doing. When we did our first Thailand guide, it was a small destination. By the time our potential competitors woke up to [its appeal], it was too late for them. We’re involved with the Planet Wheeler Foundation, the Wheeler Centre in Melbourne and I’m on the board of the Global Heritage Fund, an archeology organisation. I’m also working on five books and I still travel a lot. Last year I went to three countries I hadn’t been to before – Sudan, Ukraine and Panama. I’ve got several friends who’ve been to every country on Earth. I’d be disappointed if I didn’t go to see a couple of new countries every year, so I guess if I live long enough I might get to every country. I’m certain of one thing – there will always be travel. Tony Wheeler is speaking at the British Library, Business and IP Centre on 27 February. Enter the code GUARDIANBUSINESS for 50% off the ticket price. Sign up to become a member of the Guardian Small Business Network here for more advice, insight and best practice direct to your inbox.