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Victoria, Canada

The Executive Council of British Columbia is the cabinet of that Canadian province.Almost always made up of members of the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia the Cabinet is similar in structure and role to the Cabinet of Canada while being smaller in size. As federal and provincial responsibilities differ there are a number of different portfolios between the federal and provincial governments.The Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia, as representative of the Queen in Right of British Columbia, heads the council, and is referred to as the Lieutenant Governor in Council. Other members of the Cabinet, who advise, or minister, the vice-regal, are selected by the Premier of British Columbia and appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor. Most cabinet ministers are the head of a ministry, but this is not always the case.As at the federal level the most important Cabinet post after that of the leader is Minister of Finance, although notably during the regimes of Premiers WAC Bennett and Dave Barrett that position was conjoint with that of the Premier. Today the next most powerful positions are the Forestry and Health portfolios which have huge budgets and are of central political importance. Other powerful portfolios include Education, Health, and Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources.In the crown colonies of British Columbia and Vancouver Island, the Executive Councils were largely appointed by the Governor and included military and judicial officials, their role that of the Governor's cabinet, similar to the present except that the Governor took part in cabinet meetings and political decisions, which a Lieutenant-Governor does not. The colonial Legislative Assemblies were subordinate to the Governor and the Council and served more as a sounding-board than a legislative body. Wikipedia.

O'Neill G.A.,University of Northern British Columbia | Nigh G.,British Columbia Ministry of forests
Global Change Biology

Changes to forest growth models used widely in global change research and sustainable forest management are needed to account for expected climate change impacts. We provide a new approach that dynamically merges height-age functions prevalent in forest growth models with transfer functions prevalent in population adaptation research to better represent changes to forest productivity as climates gradually change. Our simulations with data from an extensive provenance test of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) in British Columbia, Canada, suggest that climate change will reduce production in lodgepole pine forests established today by at least 7-13% at the end of this century - considerably less than most predictions based solely on transfer or response functions, which do not integrate impacts as climate gradually changes. This work illustrates the need for forest productivity models to consider the changing climate in which a population is growing relative to the static climate of its origin. It also demonstrates the value of long-term provenance trials in assessing the dynamic impact of climate change on forest productivity, and serves as an example of how provenance trials may be exploited in other forest productivity models or other research fields to assess plant responses to climate. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

This study documents the spatiotemporal patterns of mountain pine beetle infestations by applying a novel approach based on a landscape infestation dynamics conceptual model in combination with morphological spatial pattern analysis using the mountain pine beetle infested pine mortality data (1960-2010) collected by the annual British Columbia aerial overview survey. The pattern analysis at the provincial level reveals that the 1980s outbreak did not crash as originally thought. The current outbreak is most likely a result of the progressive buildup of the epidemic infestations during the transition period (1985-1995) under favourable weather conditions and substantially improved host resources. This is also true for the Northeast and Cariboo areas of the province specifically, even though the infestations in the Cariboo area remained at incipient-epidemic levels during the transition period after the 1980s outbreak crashed in 1985. In the Southeast area, the current outbreak apparently continued from the outbreak that initiated in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The 1980s outbreak originated from multiple spatially separate locations whereas the current outbreak initiated from a single location in Tweedsmuir Provincial Park. The centralized and self-amplifying buildup of the current outbreak implicates at least three substantial expansions that occurred in 2002, 2006, and 2008. This study suggests that at the provincial level, as well as for the Northeast and Southeast areas of the province, the current outbreak is declining but most likely will continue for many years given the ongoing and future warming climate and a large proportion of pines that remain in the habitats of mountain pine beetles. This study also suggests that dispersals, particularly long-distance dispersal, may play a key role in driving the spread and expansion of the current outbreak although uncertainty remains due to the local dynamics of the beetle populations. © 2013 The Author. Source

The nitrogen (N) economy of conifers is hypothesized to reflect three spatially defined and interacting sources of variability in forest nutrition. These include the physiological adaptations of the host tree (N uptake capacities among populations), matched to the particular amount and nature of soil N supply (organic N, NH4 +, and NO3 -), as mediated by communities of site-adapted ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi. The spatial attributes of an N economy may vary considerably over the ranges of tree species because of wide gradients in climate and soil fertility, underpinning a potentially important aspect of conifer genecology with implications for climate change mitigation. The evidence for an intersection of N supply with host demand, as mediated by EM fungi, will be briefly reviewed and then evaluated in light of assisted migration studies involving provenance trials of coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) in southwestern British Columbia. The trials were established across a wide range of site types, and so they provide valuable data on host response to gradations in soil N supply and interactions with local EM fungal communities. Preliminary results and knowledge gaps will be discussed under the framework of an N economy and management of forest genetic resources. Source

Dymond C.C.,British Columbia Ministry of forests
Carbon Balance and Management

Background: The default international accounting rules estimate the carbon emissions from forest products by assuming all harvest is immediately emitted to the atmosphere. This makes it difficult to assess the greenhouse gas (GHG) consequences of different forest management or manufacturing activities that maintain the storage of carbon. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) addresses this issue by allowing other accounting methods. The objective of this paper is to provide a new model for estimating annual stock changes of carbon in harvested wood products (HWP).Results: The model, British Columbia Harvested Wood Products version 1 (BC-HWPv1), estimates carbon stocks and fluxes for wood harvested in BC from 1965 to 2065, based on new parameters on local manufacturing, updated and new information for North America on consumption and disposal of wood and paper products, and updated parameters on methane management at landfills in the USA. Based on model results, reporting on emissions as they occur would substantially lower BC's greenhouse gas inventory in 2010 from 48 Mt CO2 to 26 Mt CO2 because of the long-term forest carbon storage in-use and in the non-degradable material in landfills. In addition, if offset projects created under BC's protocol reported 100 year cumulative emissions using the BC-HWPv1 the emissions would be lower by about 11%.Conclusions: This research showed that the IPCC default methods overestimate the emissions North America wood products. Future IPCC GHG accounting methods could include a lower emissions factor (e.g. 0.52) multiplied by the annual harvest, rather than the current multiplier of 1.0. The simulations demonstrated that the primary opportunities for climate change mitigation are in shifting from burning mill waste to using the wood for longer-lived products. © 2012 Dymond; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Brockley R.P.,British Columbia Ministry of forests
Canadian Journal of Forest Research

Sustained growth responses and large reductions in rotation length can be achieved by repeatedly fertilizing young boreal forests. This paper reports the effects of different regimes and frequencies of fertilization on the foliar nutrition and growth of 10-year-old sub-boreal white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) in central British Columbia. Mean stand volume in treatment plots fertilized twice (at 6-year intervals) with N and B (totaling 400 kg N/ha and 3 kg B/ha) was 20 m 3/ha (75%) greater than in the unfertilized control at year 12. Significantly larger stand volume gains (34 m 3/ha, 128%) were obtained when S (totaling 100 kg S/ha) was added to this treatment. The inclusion of other nutrients (P, K, and Mg) with N, S, and B did not result in further incremental growth gains. When combined with other nutrients, yearly applications of 100-200 kg N/ha (totaling 1600 kg N/ha) produced 74 m 3/ha (277%) more volume compared with the unfertilized stand at year 12. The large effects of fertilization on stand growth were accompanied by large increases in leaf area. Results indicate that repeated fertilization of young sub-boreal spruce forests may offer an excellent opportunity to increase fibre yield and reduce rotation length. Source

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