Victoria, Canada

The Executive Council of British Columbia is the cabinet of that Canadian province.Almost always made up of members of the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia the Cabinet is similar in structure and role to the Cabinet of Canada while being smaller in size. As federal and provincial responsibilities differ there are a number of different portfolios between the federal and provincial governments.The Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia, as representative of the Queen in Right of British Columbia, heads the council, and is referred to as the Lieutenant Governor in Council. Other members of the Cabinet, who advise, or minister, the vice-regal, are selected by the Premier of British Columbia and appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor. Most cabinet ministers are the head of a ministry, but this is not always the case.As at the federal level the most important Cabinet post after that of the leader is Minister of Finance, although notably during the regimes of Premiers WAC Bennett and Dave Barrett that position was conjoint with that of the Premier. Today the next most powerful positions are the Forestry and Health portfolios which have huge budgets and are of central political importance. Other powerful portfolios include Education, Health, and Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources.In the crown colonies of British Columbia and Vancouver Island, the Executive Councils were largely appointed by the Governor and included military and judicial officials, their role that of the Governor's cabinet, similar to the present except that the Governor took part in cabinet meetings and political decisions, which a Lieutenant-Governor does not. The colonial Legislative Assemblies were subordinate to the Governor and the Council and served more as a sounding-board than a legislative body. Wikipedia.

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Dymond C.C.,British Columbia Ministry of forests
Carbon Balance and Management | Year: 2012

Background: The default international accounting rules estimate the carbon emissions from forest products by assuming all harvest is immediately emitted to the atmosphere. This makes it difficult to assess the greenhouse gas (GHG) consequences of different forest management or manufacturing activities that maintain the storage of carbon. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) addresses this issue by allowing other accounting methods. The objective of this paper is to provide a new model for estimating annual stock changes of carbon in harvested wood products (HWP).Results: The model, British Columbia Harvested Wood Products version 1 (BC-HWPv1), estimates carbon stocks and fluxes for wood harvested in BC from 1965 to 2065, based on new parameters on local manufacturing, updated and new information for North America on consumption and disposal of wood and paper products, and updated parameters on methane management at landfills in the USA. Based on model results, reporting on emissions as they occur would substantially lower BC's greenhouse gas inventory in 2010 from 48 Mt CO2 to 26 Mt CO2 because of the long-term forest carbon storage in-use and in the non-degradable material in landfills. In addition, if offset projects created under BC's protocol reported 100 year cumulative emissions using the BC-HWPv1 the emissions would be lower by about 11%.Conclusions: This research showed that the IPCC default methods overestimate the emissions North America wood products. Future IPCC GHG accounting methods could include a lower emissions factor (e.g. 0.52) multiplied by the annual harvest, rather than the current multiplier of 1.0. The simulations demonstrated that the primary opportunities for climate change mitigation are in shifting from burning mill waste to using the wood for longer-lived products. © 2012 Dymond; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Geertsema M.,British Columbia Ministry of forests
Landslide Science and Practice: Global Environmental Change | Year: 2013

I examine prehistoric and historic quick clay landslide scars in two valleys in northwestern British Columbia, and test the evidence against Bjerrum's and Levebvre's landscape evolution models. Streams in the Terrace-Kitimat valley are still incising deep glaciomarine sediments and appear to be in the early and intermediate stages of valley formation, thus large landslides are still occurring and more are expected. In contrast, streams in the Nass Valley are incised into bedrock, in the late stages of valley formation. Early evidence suggests most of the landslides are old, and more large landslides are not expected to be triggered by bank erosion. Rapid incision in the Nass valley may have overwhelmed climatic influences, however in the Terrace-Kitimat valley identified wetter climate regimes seem to correspond to higher earth flow activity. Here, a future warmer and wetter climate, as predicted by most global circulation models, will likely lead to increased landsliding. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.

The nitrogen (N) economy of conifers is hypothesized to reflect three spatially defined and interacting sources of variability in forest nutrition. These include the physiological adaptations of the host tree (N uptake capacities among populations), matched to the particular amount and nature of soil N supply (organic N, NH4 +, and NO3 -), as mediated by communities of site-adapted ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi. The spatial attributes of an N economy may vary considerably over the ranges of tree species because of wide gradients in climate and soil fertility, underpinning a potentially important aspect of conifer genecology with implications for climate change mitigation. The evidence for an intersection of N supply with host demand, as mediated by EM fungi, will be briefly reviewed and then evaluated in light of assisted migration studies involving provenance trials of coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) in southwestern British Columbia. The trials were established across a wide range of site types, and so they provide valuable data on host response to gradations in soil N supply and interactions with local EM fungal communities. Preliminary results and knowledge gaps will be discussed under the framework of an N economy and management of forest genetic resources.

This study documents the spatiotemporal patterns of mountain pine beetle infestations by applying a novel approach based on a landscape infestation dynamics conceptual model in combination with morphological spatial pattern analysis using the mountain pine beetle infested pine mortality data (1960-2010) collected by the annual British Columbia aerial overview survey. The pattern analysis at the provincial level reveals that the 1980s outbreak did not crash as originally thought. The current outbreak is most likely a result of the progressive buildup of the epidemic infestations during the transition period (1985-1995) under favourable weather conditions and substantially improved host resources. This is also true for the Northeast and Cariboo areas of the province specifically, even though the infestations in the Cariboo area remained at incipient-epidemic levels during the transition period after the 1980s outbreak crashed in 1985. In the Southeast area, the current outbreak apparently continued from the outbreak that initiated in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The 1980s outbreak originated from multiple spatially separate locations whereas the current outbreak initiated from a single location in Tweedsmuir Provincial Park. The centralized and self-amplifying buildup of the current outbreak implicates at least three substantial expansions that occurred in 2002, 2006, and 2008. This study suggests that at the provincial level, as well as for the Northeast and Southeast areas of the province, the current outbreak is declining but most likely will continue for many years given the ongoing and future warming climate and a large proportion of pines that remain in the habitats of mountain pine beetles. This study also suggests that dispersals, particularly long-distance dispersal, may play a key role in driving the spread and expansion of the current outbreak although uncertainty remains due to the local dynamics of the beetle populations. © 2013 The Author.

O'Neill G.A.,University of Northern British Columbia | Nigh G.,British Columbia Ministry of forests
Global Change Biology | Year: 2011

Changes to forest growth models used widely in global change research and sustainable forest management are needed to account for expected climate change impacts. We provide a new approach that dynamically merges height-age functions prevalent in forest growth models with transfer functions prevalent in population adaptation research to better represent changes to forest productivity as climates gradually change. Our simulations with data from an extensive provenance test of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) in British Columbia, Canada, suggest that climate change will reduce production in lodgepole pine forests established today by at least 7-13% at the end of this century - considerably less than most predictions based solely on transfer or response functions, which do not integrate impacts as climate gradually changes. This work illustrates the need for forest productivity models to consider the changing climate in which a population is growing relative to the static climate of its origin. It also demonstrates the value of long-term provenance trials in assessing the dynamic impact of climate change on forest productivity, and serves as an example of how provenance trials may be exploited in other forest productivity models or other research fields to assess plant responses to climate. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Kabzems R.,British Columbia Ministry of forests
Forestry Chronicle | Year: 2012

Declines in forest productivity have been linked to losses of organic matter and soil porosity. To assess how removal of organic matter and soil compaction affect short-term ecosystem dynamics, pre-treatment and year 1, 5 and 10 post-treatment soil properties and post-treatment plant community responses were examined in a boreal trembling aspen (Populus tremuloidesMichx.)-dominated ecosystem in northeastern British Columbia. The experiment used a completely randomized design with three levels of organic matter removal (tree stems only; stems and slash; stems, slash and forest floor) and three levels of soil compaction (none, intermediate [2-cm impression], heavy [5-cm impression]). Removal of the forest floor initially stimulated aspen regeneration and significantly reduced height growth of aspen (198 cm compared to 472-480 cm) as well as white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) height (82 cm compared to 154-156 cm). The compaction treatments had no effect on aspen regeneration density. At Year 10, heights of both aspen and white spruce were negatively correlated with upper mineral soil bulk density and were lowest on forest floor + whole tree removal treatments. Recovery of soil properties was occurring in the 0 cm to 2 cm layer of mineral soil. Bulk density values for the 0 cm to 10 cm depth remained above 86% of the maximum bulk density for the site, a soil condition where reduced tree growth can be expected.

Nigh G.,British Columbia Ministry of forests
Forestry Chronicle | Year: 2012

Nonlinear mixed-effects models have become common in the forestry literature. Calibration of these models for a new subject (one not used in the fitting of the model) involves estimating the values of the of random-effects parameters. Estimators can be obtained by taking a Taylor-series expansion of the nonlinear model around the expected value or the conditional expectation of the random-effects parameters. The conditional expectation method requires an iterative technique to find the estimates, which can be a complicated programming exercise. This note describes a relatively easy way to do the calculations necessary for both the zero expansion and conditional expectation methods in Excel and demonstrates the procedure on a small example.

Kranabetter J.M.,British Columbia Ministry of forests | MacKenzie W.H.,British Columbia Ministry of forests
Ecosystems | Year: 2010

The distribution of plant species in boreal forest understories is hypothesized to reflect mycorrhizal guilds and associated adaptations for organic nitrogen (N) acquisition. In this study of a natural edaphic gradient, where supply rates of inorganic N increase with site productivity, we noted a decline in understory ectomycorrhizal, ericoid, and arbutoid plant communities on productive sites, in contrast to a positive response by most arbuscular species. We then assessed the rate of change in foliar N concentration (Nconc) and abundance of 15N (δ15N) of select plants from these mycorrhizal guilds. Two arbuscular plant species (Rubusparviflorus and Viburnumedule) had the sharpest increases in foliar Nconc with enhanced supplies of NH4 + and NO3 -, but with no differences in foliar δ15N. An ectomycorrhizal species, Abieslasiocarpa, and ericoid species, Vacciniummembranaceum, had parallel increases in both Nconc and δ15N with soil N supply. The foliar δ15N of two arbutoid plants (Orthiliasecunda and Pyrolaasarifolia) were as enriched as ectomycorrhizal sporocarps, likely indicating N transfer from mycorrhizal networks. The depletion of foliar δ15N by ectomycorrhizal and ericoid plants on poorer sites likely reflected a high degree of N retention and photosynthate demand by fungi, whereas arbuscular plants may have had a less significant δ15N response because of a more passive role by fungi in scavenging organic N. The results suggest differences in how mycorrhiza exploit diverse soil N supplies (recalcitrant and labile organic N, NH4 +, NO3 -, and parasitized N) could be an important factor in boreal plant community composition. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Jordan P.,British Columbia Ministry of forests
International Journal of Wildland Fire | Year: 2016

Several post-wildfire debris flows and other landslides occurred after the extreme wildfire season of 2003 in the southern interior of British Columbia. Such events had not been previously reported in Canada, although they are common in lower latitudes. Severe wildfire seasons also were experienced in 2007 and 2009, and additional events were observed in four fires. Post-wildfire landslides have occurred in spring, summer and fall (autumn); events have been triggered by spring snowmelt, high-intensity summer rainstorms and low-intensity fall rainstorms. Of a total of 36 documented events, 23 were debris flows, and the most common initiating mechanism was high peak flow in channels. Most sediment in these events was derived from the channels, not from erosion in burned areas. Seven of the events were infiltration-triggered debris slides, and six events were debris floods. A variety of hydrologic changes can contribute to the prevalence of post-wildfire landslides and floods, including an increase in snowmelt rate. High-severity burn in catchment headwaters above steep channels is a topographic factor favouring debris flow occurrence. These observations demonstrate that the likelihood of debris flows and other mass-movement events in susceptible terrain is significantly increased following severe wildfire in this snow-dominated environment. Journal compilation © IAWF 2016.

Plants are not ideal foods for bears yet many populations are largely vegetarian. Implications of this diet on the body composition, fitness, and competiveness of black (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) and grizzly (Ursus arctos L., 1758) bears have had limited field investigation. The analysis of scats of grizzly and black bears from the Flathead valley, British Columbia, suggest seasonal dietary differences between species, but >85% of the summer diet of both species were fruits that are low in protein. Body composition measurements showed bears loose fat during spring, gained fat during summer, and grizzly bears were leaner than black bears. Individual black bears gained mass up to 2.7 times faster than theory predicted. Bears rapidly gained fat but lost lean tissues while feeding on fruit, suggesting that lean tissues were used to buffer seasonal protein shortages. Comparisons among populations of grizzly bears without access to salmon revealed the amount of meat in the diet was positively related with adult female mass but negatively related with bear density. Bears have the behavioural and phenotypic plasticity which enables populations that focus their foraging on plants to have small but fat females and live at higher densities than populations that focus more on obtaining terrestrial meat.

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