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Parmley E.J.,University of Guelph | Soos C.,University of Guelph | Soos C.,Environment Canada | Breault A.,Canadian Wildlife Service Pacific Yukon Region | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2011

Surveillance for avian influenza viruses in wild birds was initiated in Canada in 2005. In 2006, in order to maximize detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, the sampling protocol used in Canada's Interagency Wild Bird Influenza Survey was changed. Instead of collecting a single cloacal swab, as previously done in 2005, cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs were combined in a single vial at collection. In order to compare the two sampling methods, duplicate samples were collected from 798 wild dabbling ducks (tribe Anatini) in Canada between 24 July and 7 September 2006. Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses were detected significantly more often (P,0.0001) in combined oropharyngeal and cloacal samples (261/798, 33%) than in cloacal swabs alone (205/798, 26%). Compared to traditional single cloacal samples, combined samples improved virus detection at minimal additional cost. © Wildlife Disease Association 2011.


Furtula V.,Environment Canada | Farrell E.G.,Environment Canada | Diarrassouba F.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Rempel H.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 2 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2010

Veterinary pharmaceuticals are commonly used in poultry farming to prevent and treat microbial infections as well as to increase feed efficiency, but their use has created public and environmental health concerns. Poultry litter contains antimicrobial residues and resistant bacteria; when applied as fertilizer, the level and effects of these pharmaceuticals and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in the environment are of concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate poultry litter for veterinary pharmaceuticals and resistance patterns of Escherichia coli. Litter samples were collected from controlled feeding trials and from commercial farms. Feed additives bacitracin, chlortet-racycline, monensin, narasin, nicarbazin, penicillin, salinomycin, and virginiamycin, which were present in the feed on commercial farms and added to the feed in the controlled trials, were extracted in methanol and analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. Sixty-nine E. coli were isolated and identified by API 20E. The susceptibility of the isolates to antibiotics was determined using Avian plates and the Sensititer automated system. This study confirmed the presence of antimicrobial residues in broiler litter from controlled environments as well as commercial farms, ranging from 0.07 to 66 mg/L depending on the compound. Concentrations of individual residues were higher in litter from controlled feeding trials than those from commercial farms. All E. coli isolates from commercial farms were multiresistant to at least 7 antibiotics. Resistance to β-lactam antibiotics (amoxicillin, ceftiofur), tetracyclines, and sulfonamides was the most prevalent. This study concluded that broiler litter is a source of antimicrobial residues and represents a reservoir of multiple antibiotic-resistant E. coli. © 2010 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Young I.,University of Guelph | Young I.,Public Health Agency of Canada | Rajic A.,University of Guelph | Rajic A.,Public Health Agency of Canada | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2010

Provincial broiler-chicken marketing boards in Canada have recently implemented an on-farm food safety program called Safe, Safer, Safest. The purpose of this study was to measure broiler chicken producers' attitudes toward the program and food safety topics and use of highly recommended good production practices (GPP). Mailed and Web-based questionnaires were administered to all producers registered in British Columbia, Ontario, and Quebec in 2008. The response percentage was 33.2% (642 of 1,932). Nearly 70% of respondents rated the program as effective in producing safe chicken, and 49.1% rated the program requirements as easy to implement. Most respondents (92.9%) reported that they do not raise other poultry or keep birds as pets, and 79.8% reported that they clean and disInfect their bams between each flock cycle. Less than 50% of respondents reported that visitors wash their hands or change their clothes before entering barns, 38.4% reported that catching crews wear clean clothes and boots, and 35.8% reported that a crew other than from the hatchery places chicks. Respondents who rated the program requirements as effective or easy to implement were more likely to report the use of five of six highly recommended GPP. Only 21.1% of respondents indicated that Campylobacter can be transmitted from contaminated chicken meat to humans, and 26.6% believed that antimicrobial use in their industry is linked to antimicrobial resistance in humans. Continuing education of producers should focus on improving their awareness of these issues, while mandatory GPP should include those that are known to be effective in controlling Campylobacter and Salmonella in broiler chicken flocks. Copyright © International Association for Food Protection.


Power B.A.,Azimuth Consulting Group | Tinholt M.J.,SNC - Lavalin | Hill R.A.,Azimuth Consulting Group | Fikart A.,Azimuth Consulting Group | And 4 more authors.
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management | Year: 2010

The Crown Land Restoration Branch (CLRB) of the British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture and Lands is responsible for managing thousands of historic and abandoned mine sites on provincial lands (referred to as Crown Contaminated Sites). For most of these sites, there is limited information available regarding the extent of potential contamination or potential human health and ecological risks. Given the large number of sites, the CLRB sought a system for prioritizing investigation and management efforts among them. We developed a Risk-Ranking Methodology (RRM) to meet this objective, which was implemented in 2007/2008 with an emphasis on historic mine sites because of the significant number of sites and related potential risk. The RRM uses a risk-based Preliminary Site Investigation to gather key information about the sites. The information for each site is analyzed and summarized according to several attributes aimed at characterizing potential health and ecological risks. The summary information includes, but is not limited to, generic comparisons of exposure with effects levels (screening quotients) for human and ecological exposure pathways. The summary information (more than 25 attributes) is then used in a workshop setting to evaluate relative rankings among sites, and also to identify subsequent management actions for each site. Application of the RRM in 2007/2008 was considered successful, because there was confidence in the process, the content and the outputs. A key challenge was keeping the number of attributes to a manageable level. Ranking was based on discussion and consensus, which was a feasible approach given the relatively small number of sites that need to be ranked each year, and facilitated transparency in the ranking process.We do not rule out the future possibility of developing a quantitative function to capture trade-offs among attributes. © 2009 SETAC.

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