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Vrbova L.,University of British Columbia | Patrick D.M.,University of British Columbia | Patrick D.M.,British Columbia Center for Disease Control | Stephen C.,University of Saskatchewan | And 6 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2016

The objective of this study was to assess the use of statistical algorithms in identifying significant clusters of Salmonella spp. across different sectors of the food chain within an integrated surveillance programme. Three years of weekly Salmonella serotype data from farm animals, meat, and humans were used to create baseline models (first two years) and identify weeks with counts higher than expected using surveillance algorithms in the third (test) year. During the test year, an expert working group identified events of interest reviewing descriptive analyses of same data. The algorithms did not identify Salmonella events presenting as gradual increases or seasonal patterns as identified by the working group. However, the algorithms did identify clusters for further investigation, suggesting they could be a valuable complementary tool within an integrated surveillance system. © Copyright. Published by Cambridge University Press 2016.

Bawtree A.,British Columbia Ministry of forests | Zabek L.,British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture
Rangelands | Year: 2011

Fur, gold, and settlement are the building blocks of rangefield management in British Columbia. Furs were integral to development of trade and transportation corridors in British Columbia. Furs had high value, and early explorers representing fur-trade companies trekked across the seemingly limitless spaces and wilderness to facilitate trade with First Nations peoples. The Hudson's Bay Company used an extensive system of boats and horse trails to carry furs from central British Columbia to the mouth of the Columbia River. The rugged Coast Mountains presented an awe-inspiring barrier to travel. The Fraser River cut through the mountains, but it was too swift and treacherous for boat travel. Attitudes in the early twentieth century contributed to a lack of concern for range condition. The provincial government believed there were great opportunities for increasing the cattle industry by utilizing unused range on the vast natural stock ranges.

Diarra M.S.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Delaquis P.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Rempel H.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Bach S.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2014

The objective of this study was to analyze the antibiotic resistance phenotype and genotype of Salmonella isolated from broiler production facilities. A total of 193 Salmonella isolates recovered from commercial farms in British Columbia, Canada, were evaluated. Susceptibility to antibiotics was determined with the Sensititre system. Virulence and antibiotic resistance genes were detected by PCR assay. Genetic diversity was determined by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing. Seventeen serovars of Salmonella were identified. The most prevalent Salmonella serovars were Kentucky (29.0% of isolates), Typhimurium (23.8%), Enteritidis (13.5%), and Hadar (11.9%); serovars Heidelberg, Brandenburg, and Thompson were identified in 7.7, 4.1, and 3.6% of isolates, respectively. More than 43% of the isolates were simultaneously resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, cefoxitim, and ceftriaxone. This β-lactam resistance pattern was observed in 33 (58.9%) of the Salmonella Kentucky isolates; 2 of these isolates were also resistant to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline. Genes associated with resistance to aminoglycosides (aadA1, aadA2, and strA), β-lactams (blaCMY-2, blaSHV, and blaTEM), tetracycline (tetA and tetB), and sulfonamide (sul1) were detected among corresponding resistant isolates. The invasin gene (invA) and the Salmonella plasmid virulence gene (spvC) were found in 97.9 and 25.9% of the isolates, respectively, with 33 (71.7%) of the 46 Salmonella Typhimurium isolates and 17 (65.4%) of the 26 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates carrying both invA and spvC. PGFE typing revealed that the antibiotic-resistant serovars were genetically diverse. These data confirm that broiler chickens can be colonized by genetically diverse antibiotic-resistant Salmonella isolates harboring virulence determinants. The presence of such strains is highly relevant to food safety and public health. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.

Woodske D.,British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Consumer demand for environmentally conscious products and business practices is on the rise (Behe et al., 2013) and consumers are willing to pay more for eco-friendly products, such as plants grown in biodegradable containers. Biodegradable containers or biocontainers are made from plant-based materials and degrade quickly in the environment. Two recent online surveys found that consumers are willing to pay $0.23 to $0.29 (Yue et al., 2010) and $0.61 to $0.82 (Hall et al., 2010) more for plants grown in biocontainers. Besides the market opportunities, nursery growers are interested in biocontainers due to their environmental conscience and interest to reduce transplanting costs. Plantable biocontainers can reduce transplanting time by 17% relative to traditional plastic containers that must be removed when planted (Nambuthiri and Ingram, 2014). In response to industry's interest in biocontainers, a broad range of products are commercially available (Table 1) and others are in development (Evans and Hensley, 2004; Helgeson et al., 2010; Schrader et al., 2013).

Moore M.J.,Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution | Van Der Hoop J.,Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution | Barco S.G.,Virginia Marine Aquarium and Marine Science Program | Costidis A.M.,University of Florida | And 5 more authors.
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms | Year: 2013

Post-mortem examination of dead and live stranded beach-cast pinnipeds and cetaceans for determination of a cause of death provides valuable information for the management, mitigation and prosecution of unintentional and sometimes malicious human impacts, such as vessel collision, fishing gear entanglement and gunshot. Delayed discovery, inaccessibility, logistics, human safety concerns, and weather make these events challenging. Over the past 3 decades, in response to public concern and federal and state or provincial regulations mandating such investigations to inform mitigation efforts, there has been an increasing effort to objectively and systematically investigate these strandings from a diagnostic and forensic perspective. This Theme Section provides basic investigative methods, and case definitions for each of the more commonly recognized case presentations of human interactions in pinnipeds and cetaceans. Wild animals are often adversely affected by factors such as parasitism, anthropogenic contaminants, biotoxins, subclinical microbial infections and competing habitat uses, such as prey depletion and elevated background and episodic noise. Understanding the potential contribution of these subclinical factors in predisposing or contributing to a particular case of trauma of human origin is hampered, especially where putrefaction is significant and resources as well as expertise are limited. These case criteria descriptions attempt to acknowledge those confounding factors to enable an appreciation of the significance of the observed human-derived trauma in that broader context where possible. © Inter-Research 2013.

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