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Nelson, New Zealand

Shanley C.S.,The Nature Conservancy | Pyare S.,University of Alaska Southeast | Goldstein M.I.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Alaback P.B.,University of Montana | And 11 more authors.
Climatic Change

We synthesized an expert review of climate change implications for hydroecological and terrestrial ecological systems in the northern coastal temperate rainforest of North America. Our synthesis is based on an analysis of projected temperature, precipitation, and snowfall stratified by eight biogeoclimatic provinces and three vegetation zones. Five IPCC CMIP5 global climate models (GCMs) and two representative concentration pathways (RCPs) are the basis for projections of mean annual temperature increasing from a current average (1961–1990) of 3.2 °C to 4.9–6.9 °C (5 GCM range; RCP4.5 scenario) or 6.4–8.7 °C (RCP8.5), mean annual precipitation increasing from 3130 mm to 3210–3400 mm (3–9 % increase) or 3320–3690 mm (6–18 % increase), and total precipitation as snow decreasing from 1200 mm to 940–720 mm (22–40 % decrease) or 720–500 mm (40–58 % decrease) by the 2080s (2071–2100; 30-year normal period). These projected changes are anticipated to result in a cascade of ecosystem-level effects including: increased frequency of flooding and rain-on-snow events; an elevated snowline and reduced snowpack; changes in the timing and magnitude of stream flow, freshwater thermal regimes, and riverine nutrient exports; shrinking alpine habitats; altitudinal and latitudinal expansion of lowland and subalpine forest types; shifts in suitable habitat boundaries for vegetation and wildlife communities; adverse effects on species with rare ecological niches or limited dispersibility; and shifts in anadromous salmon distribution and productivity. Our collaborative synthesis of potential impacts highlights the coupling of social and ecological systems that characterize the region as well as a number of major information gaps to help guide assessments of future conditions and adaptive capacity. © 2015, The Author(s). Source

Cappa E.P.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Lstiburek M.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Yanchuk A.D.,British Columbia Forest Service | Yanchuk A.D.,University of British Columbia | El-Kassaby Y.A.,University of British Columbia
Silvae Genetica

Spatial environmental heterogeneity are well known characteristics of field forest genetic trials, even in small experiments ( Source

Norris C.E.,Natural Resources Canada | Maynard D.G.,Natural Resources Canada | Hogg K.E.,Natural Resources Canada | Benton R.,Natural Resources Canada | And 2 more authors.
Forest Ecology and Management

Impaired soil quality due to compaction and organic matter removal following forest harvesting and mechanical site preparation is of concern, especially on calcareous soils which are believed to be particularly sensitive to disturbance. This study set out to determine the effects of organic matter removal and compaction on soil quality and seedling productivity on calcareous soils of a localized disturbance landscape (2.25m2). Here we report ten year post-establishment results of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) seedlings across four sites in southern British Columbia, Canada with eight treatment levels incorporating different quantities of organic matter removal and soil compaction. Pine seedlings suffered high rates of mortality when planted in deposits across all sites while Douglas-fir seedling mortality was high when planted in compacted undisturbed treatments at two sites and in deposits on the remaining sites. Douglas-fir volume was greatest on the deposit treatment regardless of site but grew significantly better on the non-calcareous site. Pine seedlings outgrew Douglas-fir seedlings and, after ten years, seedlings were largest on a mildly calcareous site. Seedling growth was generally found to be negatively affected by calcareous soils and compaction; however, the specificity of results, in terms of species and site interaction and changing response as the seedlings aged, reinforced the importance of treatment effects on soil quality and forest productivity across the entire length of a stand rotation. © 2015. Source

Brice B.,University of Denver | Lorion K.K.,University of Maine, United States | Griffin D.,University of Arizona | Macalady A.K.,University of Arizona | And 10 more authors.
Tree-Ring Research

The creation of chronologies from intra-annual features in tree rings is increasingly utilized in dendrochronology to create season-specific climate histories, among other applications. A conifer latewood-width network has recently been developed for the southwestern United States, but considerable uncertainty remains in understanding site and species differences in signal strength and sample depth requirements. As part of the 22nd annual North American Dendroecological Fieldweek, the first Pinus ponderosa earlywood-width (EW) and latewood-width (LW) chronologies were developed for the Jemez Mountains in northern New Mexico. The aim was to extend an existing total ring-width (TW) chronology and to assess the potential for creating long LW chronologies. Analysis of chronology signal strength suggests that large sample size requirements remain a considerable hurdle for creating P. ponderosa LW chronologies longer than 400 years. At the Cat Mesa site, twenty-three sample trees were required to capture a statistically acceptable common signal in adjusted latewood (LWa), whereas only four samples were required for EW. This is significantly higher than sample depth requirements for LWa from the few other chronologies in the region where this statistic has been reported. A future priority should be to develop a conceptual guide for site and tree selection in order to maximize the potential for enhancing LW signal and for creating a robust network of multi-century LW chronologies. Copyright © 2013 by The Tree-Ring Society. Source

Ott D.S.,University of Vermont | Ott D.S.,University of Northern British Columbia | Yanchuk A.D.,British Columbia Forest Service | Huber D.P.W.,University of Northern British Columbia | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Chemical Ecology

Plant secondary chemistry is determined by both genetic and environmental factors, and while large intraspecific variation in secondary chemistry has been reported frequently, the levels of genetic variation of many secondary metabolites in forest trees in the context of potential resistance against pests have been rarely investigated. We examined the effect of tree genotype and environment/site on the variation in defensive secondary chemistry of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia, against the fungus, Grosmannia clavigera (formerly known as Ophiostoma clavigerum), associated with the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. Terpenoids were analyzed in phloem samples from 887, 20-yr-old trees originating from 45 half-sibling families planted at two sites. Samples were collected both pre- and post-inoculation with G. clavigera. Significant variation in constitutive and induced terpenoid compounds was attributed to differences among families. The response to the challenge inoculation with G. clavigera was strong for some individual compounds, but primarily for monoterpenoids. Environment (site) also had a significant effect on the accumulation of some compounds, whereas for others, no significant environmental effect occurred. However, for a few compounds significant family x environment interactions were found. These results suggest that P. c. latifolia secondary chemistry is under strong genetic control, but the effects depend on the individual compounds and whether or not they are expressed constitutively or following induction. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

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