Nelson, New Zealand
Nelson, New Zealand

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Shanley C.S.,The Nature Conservancy | Pyare S.,University of Alaska Southeast | Goldstein M.I.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Alaback P.B.,University of Montana | And 11 more authors.
Climatic Change | Year: 2015

We synthesized an expert review of climate change implications for hydroecological and terrestrial ecological systems in the northern coastal temperate rainforest of North America. Our synthesis is based on an analysis of projected temperature, precipitation, and snowfall stratified by eight biogeoclimatic provinces and three vegetation zones. Five IPCC CMIP5 global climate models (GCMs) and two representative concentration pathways (RCPs) are the basis for projections of mean annual temperature increasing from a current average (1961–1990) of 3.2 °C to 4.9–6.9 °C (5 GCM range; RCP4.5 scenario) or 6.4–8.7 °C (RCP8.5), mean annual precipitation increasing from 3130 mm to 3210–3400 mm (3–9 % increase) or 3320–3690 mm (6–18 % increase), and total precipitation as snow decreasing from 1200 mm to 940–720 mm (22–40 % decrease) or 720–500 mm (40–58 % decrease) by the 2080s (2071–2100; 30-year normal period). These projected changes are anticipated to result in a cascade of ecosystem-level effects including: increased frequency of flooding and rain-on-snow events; an elevated snowline and reduced snowpack; changes in the timing and magnitude of stream flow, freshwater thermal regimes, and riverine nutrient exports; shrinking alpine habitats; altitudinal and latitudinal expansion of lowland and subalpine forest types; shifts in suitable habitat boundaries for vegetation and wildlife communities; adverse effects on species with rare ecological niches or limited dispersibility; and shifts in anadromous salmon distribution and productivity. Our collaborative synthesis of potential impacts highlights the coupling of social and ecological systems that characterize the region as well as a number of major information gaps to help guide assessments of future conditions and adaptive capacity. © 2015, The Author(s).


Brice B.,University of Denver | Lorion K.K.,University of Maine, United States | Griffin D.,University of Arizona | Macalady A.K.,University of Arizona | And 10 more authors.
Tree-Ring Research | Year: 2013

The creation of chronologies from intra-annual features in tree rings is increasingly utilized in dendrochronology to create season-specific climate histories, among other applications. A conifer latewood-width network has recently been developed for the southwestern United States, but considerable uncertainty remains in understanding site and species differences in signal strength and sample depth requirements. As part of the 22nd annual North American Dendroecological Fieldweek, the first Pinus ponderosa earlywood-width (EW) and latewood-width (LW) chronologies were developed for the Jemez Mountains in northern New Mexico. The aim was to extend an existing total ring-width (TW) chronology and to assess the potential for creating long LW chronologies. Analysis of chronology signal strength suggests that large sample size requirements remain a considerable hurdle for creating P. ponderosa LW chronologies longer than 400 years. At the Cat Mesa site, twenty-three sample trees were required to capture a statistically acceptable common signal in adjusted latewood (LWa), whereas only four samples were required for EW. This is significantly higher than sample depth requirements for LWa from the few other chronologies in the region where this statistic has been reported. A future priority should be to develop a conceptual guide for site and tree selection in order to maximize the potential for enhancing LW signal and for creating a robust network of multi-century LW chronologies. Copyright © 2013 by The Tree-Ring Society.


Page-Dumroese D.S.,Rocky Research | Abbott A.M.,Rocky Research | Curran M.P.,British Columbia Forest Service | Jurgensen M.F.,Michigan Technological University
USDA Forest Service - General Technical Report RMRS-GTR | Year: 2012

We describe several methods for validating visual soil disturbance classes used during forest soil monitoring after specific management operations. Site-specific vegetative, soil, and hydrologic responses to soil disturbance are needed to identify sensitive and resilient soil properties and processes; therefore, validation of ecosystem responses can provide information for best management practices in selecting appropriate harvest and site preparation techniques that limit long-term degradation and maintain site productivity and hydrologic function. Although research on forest managements affect on soil properties and plant growth responses has been conducted on a few sites, there is a need for additional site-specific validation data of soil visual disturbance attributes across the range of soil and forest conditions.


Norris C.E.,Natural Resources Canada | Maynard D.G.,Natural Resources Canada | Hogg K.E.,Natural Resources Canada | Benton R.,Natural Resources Canada | And 2 more authors.
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2015

Impaired soil quality due to compaction and organic matter removal following forest harvesting and mechanical site preparation is of concern, especially on calcareous soils which are believed to be particularly sensitive to disturbance. This study set out to determine the effects of organic matter removal and compaction on soil quality and seedling productivity on calcareous soils of a localized disturbance landscape (2.25m2). Here we report ten year post-establishment results of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) seedlings across four sites in southern British Columbia, Canada with eight treatment levels incorporating different quantities of organic matter removal and soil compaction. Pine seedlings suffered high rates of mortality when planted in deposits across all sites while Douglas-fir seedling mortality was high when planted in compacted undisturbed treatments at two sites and in deposits on the remaining sites. Douglas-fir volume was greatest on the deposit treatment regardless of site but grew significantly better on the non-calcareous site. Pine seedlings outgrew Douglas-fir seedlings and, after ten years, seedlings were largest on a mildly calcareous site. Seedling growth was generally found to be negatively affected by calcareous soils and compaction; however, the specificity of results, in terms of species and site interaction and changing response as the seedlings aged, reinforced the importance of treatment effects on soil quality and forest productivity across the entire length of a stand rotation. © 2015.


Ott D.S.,University of Vermont | Ott D.S.,University of Northern British Columbia | Yanchuk A.D.,British Columbia Forest Service | Huber D.P.W.,University of Northern British Columbia | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Chemical Ecology | Year: 2011

Plant secondary chemistry is determined by both genetic and environmental factors, and while large intraspecific variation in secondary chemistry has been reported frequently, the levels of genetic variation of many secondary metabolites in forest trees in the context of potential resistance against pests have been rarely investigated. We examined the effect of tree genotype and environment/site on the variation in defensive secondary chemistry of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia, against the fungus, Grosmannia clavigera (formerly known as Ophiostoma clavigerum), associated with the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. Terpenoids were analyzed in phloem samples from 887, 20-yr-old trees originating from 45 half-sibling families planted at two sites. Samples were collected both pre- and post-inoculation with G. clavigera. Significant variation in constitutive and induced terpenoid compounds was attributed to differences among families. The response to the challenge inoculation with G. clavigera was strong for some individual compounds, but primarily for monoterpenoids. Environment (site) also had a significant effect on the accumulation of some compounds, whereas for others, no significant environmental effect occurred. However, for a few compounds significant family x environment interactions were found. These results suggest that P. c. latifolia secondary chemistry is under strong genetic control, but the effects depend on the individual compounds and whether or not they are expressed constitutively or following induction. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Cappa E.P.,University of British Columbia | Cappa E.P.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Yanchuk A.D.,British Columbia Forest Service | Cartwright C.V.,British Columbia Forest Service
Annals of Forest Science | Year: 2012

• Context The gain in accuracy of breeding values with the use of single trial spatial analysis is well known in forestry. However, spatial analyses methodology for single forest genetic trials must be adapted for use with combined analyses of forest genetic trials across sites. • Aims This paper extends a methodology for spatial analysis of single forest genetic trial to a multi-environment trial (MET) setting. • Methods A two-stage spatial MET approach using an individual-tree model with additive and full-sib family genetic effects was developed. Dispersion parameters were estimated using Bayesian techniques via Gibbs sampling. The procedure is illustrated using height growth data at age 10 from eight large Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. second-generation full-sib progeny trials from two series established across seven sites in British Columbia (Canada) and on one in Washington (USA). • Results The proposed multi-environment spatial mixed model displayed a consistent reduction of the posterior mean and an increase in the precision of error variances (σ2 e) than the model with "sets in replicates" or incomplete block alpha designs. Also, the multi-environment spatial model provided an average increase in the posterior means of the narrow- and broad-sense individual-tree heritabilities h 2 N and h2 B, respectively). No consistent changes were observed in the posterior means of additive genetic correlations (rAjj'). • Conclusion Although computationally demanding, all dispersion parameters were successfully estimated from the proposed multi-environment spatial individual-tree model using Bayesian techniques via Gibbs sampling. The proposed twostage spatial MET approach produced better results than the commonly used nonspatial MET analysis. © INRA/Springer-Verlag France 2012.


Cappa E.P.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Lstiburek M.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Yanchuk A.D.,British Columbia Forest Service | Yanchuk A.D.,University of British Columbia | El-Kassaby Y.A.,University of British Columbia
Silvae Genetica | Year: 2011

Spatial environmental heterogeneity are well known characteristics of field forest genetic trials, even in small experiments (


Clague J.J.,Simon Fraser University | Koch J.,College of Wooster | Geertsema M.,British Columbia Forest Service
Holocene | Year: 2010

Radiocarbon and dendrochronological dating of glacially overridden stumps and detrital wood indicates that two outlet glaciers of the Juneau Icefield advanced shortly before the 'Little Ice Age'. Tulsequah Glacier advanced to within 2.4 km of its all-time Holocene limit between AD 865 and AD 940. Llewellyn Glacier, one of the largest glaciers in British Columbia, advanced sometime between AD 300 and AD 500, and reached to within 400 m of its Holocene limit between AD 1035 and AD 1210, well before the climactic, 'classical' 'Little Ice Age' advances of the past several centuries. Our data show that some glaciers in western North America were extensive and expanding at times when alpine glaciers have, in the past, been assumed to be restricted. The evidence raises questions about how to define the time of the beginning of the 'Little Ice Age' and, perhaps more importantly, about the utility of the term. © The Author(s) 2010.


Woods A.J.,British Columbia Forest Service
Journal of Forest Science | Year: 2014

As the climate continues to change, gaps in our understanding of how the altered environment will affect forest hosts and their pathogens widen. In some areas pathogens thought to be present for centuries are changing their behaviour. Dothistroma needle blight caused by the fungus Dothistroma septosporum in northwest British Columbia (BC), Canada, is a good example. In this area both the pathogen and the host, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia), are considered native species, but here Dothistroma has been responsible for killing mature host trees, which is unprecedented. A plausible link between warmer, wetter summers and directional climate change has been suggested as the primary driver. Those environmental conditions appear to be affecting the host/pathogen relationship for other diseases in the neighbouring central interior of BC including comandra blister rust (Cronartium comandrae). Disrupted host/pathogen relationships tend to favour the short-lived more adaptable pathogens rather than their long-lived hosts. These changes in forest health have not been well accounted for in fields of forest science that have been built on stability and predictability.

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