British Columbia Center for Aquatic Health science

Campbell River, Canada

British Columbia Center for Aquatic Health science

Campbell River, Canada
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Lafferty K.D.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Harvell C.D.,Cornell University | Conrad J.M.,Cornell University | Friedman C.S.,University of Washington | And 5 more authors.
Annual Review of Marine Science | Year: 2015

Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern. Copyright © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Saksida S.M.,British Columbia Center for Aquatic Health science | Marty G.D.,Animal Health Center | Jones S.R.M.,Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans | Manchester H.A.,Fish Health Unit | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2012

Juvenile pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum), in the Broughton Archipelago region of western Canada were surveyed over 2years for sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi), gross and microscopic lesions and evidence of infections with viruses and bacteria. The 1071 fish examined had an approximate ocean residence time no longer than 3months. A high prevalence of degenerative liver lesions, renal myxosporean parasites and a low prevalence of skin lesions and sea lice were observed. No indications of viral or bacterial diseases were detected in either year. The monthly prevalence of sea lice in 2007 (18-51%) was higher than in 2008 (1-26%), and the infestation density exceeded the lethal threshold in only two fish. Degenerative hepatic lesions and renal myxosporean parasites occurred in approximately 40% of the pink salmon examined in June of both years, and the peak monthly prevalence of hepatocellular hydropic degeneration was greater in 2007 (32%, in May) than in 2008 (12%, in June). Logistic regression analysis found skin lesions and hepatocellular hydropic degeneration significantly associated with sea lice. Most parasites and lesions occurred during both years, but the prevalence was often higher in 2007. Fish weight was 35% less in June 2007 than in June 2008, but condition factor was not different. Further research is required to monitor inter-annual variations and aetiology of the liver lesions and to assess their potential role on pink salmon survival. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

PubMed | Animal Health Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans and British Columbia Center for Aquatic Health science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of fish diseases | Year: 2016

A Jaundice Syndrome occurs sporadically among sea-pen-farmed Chinook Salmon in British Columbia, the westernmost province of Canada. Affected salmon are easily identified by a distinctive yellow discolouration of the abdominal and periorbital regions. Through traditional diagnostics, no bacterial or viral agents were cultured from tissues of jaundiced Chinook Salmon; however, piscine reovirus (PRV) was identified via RT-rPCR in all 10 affected fish sampled. By histopathology, Jaundice Syndrome is an acute to peracute systemic disease, and the time from first clinical signs to death is likely <48 h; renal tubular epithelial cell necrosis is the most consistent lesion. In an infectivity trial, Chinook Salmon, Sockeye Salmon and Atlantic Salmon, intraperitoneally inoculated with a PRV-positive organ homogenate from jaundiced Chinook Salmon, developed no gross or microscopic evidence of jaundice despite persistence of PRV for the 5-month holding period. The results from this study demonstrate that the Jaundice Syndrome was not transmissible by injection of material from infected fish and that PRV was not the sole aetiological factor for the condition. Additionally, these findings showed the Pacific coast strain of PRV, while transmissible, was of low pathogenicity for Atlantic Salmon, Chinook Salmon and Sockeye Salmon.

Saksida S.M.,British Columbia Center for Aquatic Health science | Greba L.,Kitasoo Fisheries Program | Morrison D.,Marine Harvest Canada | Revie C.W.,University of Prince Edward Island
Aquaculture | Year: 2011

The Kitasoo/Xai'xais First Nation established a program to monitor sea lice levels on seaward migrating wild juvenile salmon in their traditional territory which contains the most northerly salmon farming region of British Columbia. A total of 12 locations were routinely sampled during the period between 2005 and 2008 to gain a better understanding of the levels and patterns of sea lice infestation on wild salmonids in the region. Over 5000 juvenile salmon were collected and examined for sea lice. Around 78% were identified as pink salmon, 18% were chum salmon and the remainder classified as 'other' salmon (coho and sockeye salmon). Two species of sea lice were observed: Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi. Over 91% of all the juvenile salmon examined had no sea lice and there was no significant difference in L. salmonis prevalence levels among salmon species. However, chum salmon had significantly lower C. clemensi prevalence levels than either pink or 'other' salmon. There were significant annual and regional differences in L. salmonis prevalence on juvenile pink salmon; the lowest prevalence in all sampling zones occurring in 2008, while channels containing salmon farms consistently had higher levels than those without salmon farms. Mean prevalence of L. salmonis in the channels with salmon farms ranged from 2% to 9% which is lower than levels published for the same region in different years or for other areas without salmon farms. C. clemensi prevalence on wild pink salmon was associated with sampling zone and the size of pink salmon; larger juvenile fish were more likely to be infected than smaller fish. During the period of wild juvenile salmon migration, the mean abundance of motile stages of L. salmonis on farmed salmon ranged from 0.13 to 0.79 lice per fish but there were no significant differences among years. In comparison, C. clemensi abundance levels on farms were significantly higher in 2005. Factors contributing to variations in these observations are discussed. © 2011.

PubMed | Marine Harvest Canada, U.S. Geological Survey, AFBI Stormont, Pacific Biological Station and British Columbia Center for Aquatic Health science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Piscine reovirus (PRV) is a double stranded non-enveloped RNA virus detected in farmed and wild salmonids. This study examined the phylogenetic relationships among different PRV sequence types present in samples from salmonids in Western Canada and the US, including Alaska (US), British Columbia (Canada) and Washington State (US). Tissues testing positive for PRV were partially sequenced for segment S1, producing 71 sequences that grouped into 10 unique sequence types. Sequence analysis revealed no identifiable geographical or temporal variation among the sequence types. Identical sequence types were found in fish sampled in 2001, 2005 and 2014. In addition, PRV positive samples from fish derived from Alaska, British Columbia and Washington State share identical sequence types. Comparative analysis of the phylogenetic tree indicated that Canada/US Pacific Northwest sequences formed a subgroup with some Norwegian sequence types (group II), distinct from other Norwegian and Chilean sequences (groups I, III and IV). Representative PRV positive samples from farmed and wild fish in British Columbia and Washington State were subjected to genome sequencing using next generation sequencing methods. Individual analysis of each of the 10 partial segments indicated that the Canadian and US PRV sequence types clustered separately from available whole genome sequences of some Norwegian and Chilean sequences for all segments except the segment S4. In summary, PRV was genetically homogenous over a large geographic distance (Alaska to Washington State), and the sequence types were relatively stable over a 13 year period.

Hori T.S.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Gamperl A.K.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Afonso L.O.B.,British Columbia Center for Aquatic Health science | Johnson S.C.,Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Center | And 4 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2010

Background: Daily and seasonal changes in temperature are challenges that fish within aquaculture settings cannot completely avoid, and are known to elicit complex organismal and cellular stress responses. We conducted a large-scale gene discovery and transcript expression study in order to better understand the genes that are potentially involved in the physiological and cellular aspects of stress caused by heat-shock. We used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library construction and characterization to identify transcripts that were dysregulated by heat-shock in liver, skeletal muscle and head kidney of Atlantic cod. These tissues were selected due to their roles in metabolic regulation, locomotion and growth, and immune function, respectively. Fish were exposed for 3 hours to an 8°C elevation in temperature, and then allowed to recover for 24 hours at the original temperature (i.e. 10°C). Tissue samples obtained before heat-shock (BHS), at the cessation of heat-shock (CS), and 3, 12, and 24 hours after the cessation of heat-shock (ACS), were used for reciprocal SSH library construction and quantitative reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) analysis of gene expression using samples from a group that was transferred but not heat-shocked (CT) as controls.Results: We sequenced and characterized 4394 ESTs (1524 from liver, 1451 from head kidney and 1419 from skeletal muscle) from three "forward subtracted" libraries (enriched for genes up-regulated by heat-shock) and 1586 from the liver "reverse subtracted" library (enriched for genes down-regulated by heat-shock), for a total of 5980 ESTs. Several cDNAs encoding putative chaperones belonging to the heat-shock protein (HSP) family were found in these libraries, and "protein folding" was among the gene ontology (GO) terms with the highest proportion in the libraries. QPCR analysis of HSP90α and HSP70-1 (synonym: HSPA1A) mRNA expression showed significant up-regulation in all three tissues studied. These transcripts were more than 100-fold up-regulated in liver following heat-shock. We also identified HSP47, GRP78 and GRP94-like transcripts, which were significantly up-regulated in all 3 tissues studied. Toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22) transcript, found in the liver reverse SSH library, was shown by QPCR to be significantly down-regulated in the head kidney after heat-shock.Conclusion: Chaperones are an important part of the cellular response to stress, and genes identified in this work may play important roles in resistance to thermal-stress. Moreover, the transcript for one key immune response gene (TLR22) was down-regulated by heat-shock, and this down-regulation may be a component of heat-induced immunosuppression. © 2010 Hori et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Hori T.S.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Rise M.L.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Johnson S.C.,Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Center | Afonso L.O.B.,British Columbia Center for Aquatic Health science | Gamperl A.K.,Memorial University of Newfoundland
General and Comparative Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Cortisol is a major stress hormone in fish and is known, under normal or stressful conditions, to affect several physiological processes including growth and immunity. Thus, efforts have been made for several cultured finfish species, including the Atlantic cod, to determine whether fish with a high or low cortisol response to stress can be identified and selected. However, we have a limited understanding of the mechanisms that determine these two phenotypes. Thus, we measured total and free plasma cortisol levels in high and low responding cod when subjected to a 30. s handling stress, and the mRNA expression of four key genes in the glucocorticoid (i.e. cortisol) stress axis both pre- and post-stress. The cortisol data is consistent with our previous findings for cod, with high responding (HR) fish having ∼3-fold higher total and free plasma cortisol levels when compared to low responding (LR) fish. Three of the transcripts studied encode key proteins involved in steroidogenesis (StAR, P450scc and 3βHSD), and the constitutive mRNA expression of all three genes was significantly higher (∼2-fold) in the head kidney of HR fish when compared to LR cod. The other gene of interest was the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). We partly cloned and characterized a cDNA from Atlantic cod likely to be this fish's ortholog of the teleost GR1, and showed that while there was no difference in hepatic constitutive GR mRNA expression between groups, HR fish had liver GR mRNA levels that were significantly (1.8-fold) higher at 3. h post-stress as compared to LR fish. Our results suggest that the different magnitude of cortisol response between LR and HR fish is at least partially determined by the capacity of the interrenal tissue to produce steroids. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Sappal R.,University of Prince Edward Island | MacDonald N.,University of Prince Edward Island | Fast M.,University of Prince Edward Island | Stevens D.,University of Prince Edward Island | And 3 more authors.
Aquatic Toxicology | Year: 2014

Thermal stress may influence how organisms respond to concurrent or subsequent chemical, physical and biotic stressors. To unveil the potential mechanisms via which thermal stress modulates metals-induced bioenergetic disturbances, the interacting effects of temperature and copper (Cu) were investigated in vitro. Mitochondria isolated from rainbow trout livers were exposed to a range of Cu concentrations at three temperatures (5, 15 and 25°C) with measurement of mitochondrial complex I (mtCI)-driven respiratory flux indices and uncoupler-stimulated respiration. Additional studies assessed effects of temperature and Cu on mtCI enzyme activity, induction of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), swelling kinetics and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Maximal and basal respiration rates, as well as the proton leak, increased with temperature with the Q10 effects being higher at lower temperatures. The effect of Cu depended on the mitochondrial functional state in that the maximal respiration was monotonically inhibited by Cu exposure while low and high Cu concentrations stimulated and inhibited the basal respiration/proton leak, respectively. Importantly, temperature exacerbated the effects of Cu by lowering the concentration of the metal required for toxicity and causing loss of thermal dependence of mitochondrial respiration. Mitochondrial complex I activity was inhibited by Cu but was not affected by incubation temperature. Compared with the calcium (Ca) positive control, Cu-imposed mitochondrial swelling exhibited variable kinetics depending on the inducing conditions, and was highly temperature-sensitive. A partial reversal of the Cu-induced swelling by cyclosporine A was observed suggesting that it is in part mediated by MPTP. Interestingly, the combination of high Cu and high temperature not only completely inhibited mitochondrial swelling but also greatly increased the respiratory control ratio (RCR) relative to the controls. Copper exposure also caused marked MMP dissipation which was reversed by N-acetyl cysteine and vitamin E suggesting a role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this response. Taken together, Cu impairs oxidative phosphorylation in part by inhibiting the electron transport chain (ETC), stimulating proton leak, inducing MPTP and dissipating MMP, with high temperature exacerbating these effects. Thus environmental temperature rise due to natural phenomenon or global climate change may sensitize fish to Cu toxicity by exacerbating mitochondrial dysfunction. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Tanguy M.,University of Le Havre | Tanguy M.,University of Quebec at Rimouski | Tanguy M.,University of Prince Edward Island | McKenna P.,University of Prince Edward Island | And 5 more authors.
Developmental and Comparative Immunology | Year: 2013

This study aims at examining the morphological, functional and molecular responses of Mytilus edulis hemocytes exposed to different strains of Gram-negative bacteria Vibrio splendidus (a virulent strain V. splendidus LGP32, V. splendidus LGP32 Δ vsm without metalloprotease and an environmental type strain V. splendidus 7SHRW) at a 1:3 ratio for 2, 4, and 6. h. Our data showed that hemocytes could have a discriminative capacity towards microorganisms. Both V. splendidus LGP32 strains had an effect on hemocyte adhesion, phagocytosis abilities and oxidative burst, whereas the environmental strain 7SHRW induced weak and delayed hemocyte responses. At a molecular level, differential levels of candidate transcripts were measured in M. edulis hemocytes exposed to V. splendidus LGP32-GFP and 7SHRW. Mainly, a down-regulation of defensin was recorded in hemocytes exposed to V. splendidus LGP32. A significant up-regulation of lysozyme and proteasome 26S was observed at 2. h followed by a down-regulation at 4 and 6. h of exposure to the LGP32 strain. Similarly, SOD and GPx genes were up-regulated 2. h post-exposure to LGP32 strain and their expressions decreased after 4 and 6. h post-exposure. Further analysis is however needed in a near future to relate the transcript level variations with the physiological process. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

PubMed | University of Prince Edward Island and British Columbia Center for Aquatic Health science
Type: | Journal: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) | Year: 2016

To survive in changing environments fish utilize a wide range of biological responses that require energy. We examined the effect of warm acclimation on the electron transport system (ETS) enzymes and transcriptional responses to hypoxia and copper (Cu) exposure in fish. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were acclimated to cold (11 C; control) and warm (20 C) temperatures for 3 weeks followed by exposure to Cu, hypoxia or both for 24 h. Activities of ETS enzyme complexes I-IV (CI-CIV) were measured in liver and gill mitochondria. Analyses of transcripts encoding for proteins involved in mitochondrial respiration (cytochrome c oxidase subunits 4-1 and 2: COX4-1 and COX4-2), metal detoxification/stress response (metallothioneins A and B: MT-A and MT-B) and energy sensing (AMP-activated protein kinase 1: AMPK1) were done in liver mitochondria, and in whole liver and gill tissues by RT-qPCR. Warm acclimation inhibited activities of ETS enzymes while effects of Cu and hypoxia depended on the enzyme and thermal acclimation status. The genes encoding for COX4-1, COX4-2, MT-A, MT-B and AMPK1 were strongly and tissue-dependently altered by warm acclimation. While Cu and hypoxia clearly increased MT-A and MT-B transcript levels in all tissues, their effects on COX4-1, COX4-2 and AMPK1 mRNA levels were less pronounced. Importantly, warm acclimation differentially altered COX4-2/COX4-1 ratio in liver mitochondria and gill tissue. The three stressors showed both independent and joint actions on activities of ETS enzymes and transcription of genes involved in energy metabolism, stress response and metals homeostasis. Overall, we unveiled novel interactive effects that should not be overlooked in real world situations wherein fish normally encounter multiple stress factors.

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