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Martinez-Gonzalez I.,British Columbia Cancer Agency | Steer C.A.,University of British Columbia | Takei F.,University of British Columbia
Trends in Immunology | Year: 2015

How allergens trigger the T helper 2 (Th2) response that characterizes allergic lung inflammation is not well understood. Epithelium-derived alarmins released after an allergen encounter activate the innate immune system, including group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) which produce the type 2 interleukins IL-5 and IL-13. It has been recently shown that ILC2-derived cytokines are responsible not only for the innate responses underlying allergic inflammation but also for the initiation of the adaptive Th2 response. We review the role of lung ILC2s in the development of allergic inflammation and, in the context of recent findings, propose a common pathway wherein ILC2s, activated by the epithelium-derived cytokine IL-33, link the innate and the adaptive responses after allergen encounter in the lung. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Aubert G.,British Columbia Cancer Agency
Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science | Year: 2014

Telomeres consist of repetitive DNA-protein complexes that cap the ends of vertebrate linear chromosomes. Their capping function and dynamics both with regard to structure and length are carefully orchestrated by many regulatory mechanisms and factors, with likely more yet to be described. Telomere shortening has been shown to be a major measurable molecular characteristic of aging of cells in vitro and in vivo and is thought to have evolved as a tumor protection mechanism in long-lived species. Regulators and modifiers of telomere dynamics and dynamics with age together with the consequences of telomere shortening and telomere dysfunction in the context of aging and aging-related disorders are discussed in this chapter. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Connors J.M.,British Columbia Cancer Agency
Modern Pathology | Year: 2013

Optimal treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma depends on establishing an accurate diagnosis and determining the stage or anatomic extent of the lymphoma. With this information, the treating clinician can assign the lymphoma to a subgroup characterized by expected natural history: indolent, aggressive, acute leukemia-like or viral, which generally reflects the typical behavior of the disease unmodified by treatment and indicates the urgency with which intervention must be offered. Finally, a number of special circumstances and problems posed by specific lymphomas must be anticipated and the therapeutic plan altered to accommodate them. After primary treatment, special secondary events such as transformation to more aggressive histologic types must be recognized and the treatment plan must be altered to address these events. This article reviews standard diagnostic grouping of lymphomas, special problems encountered during primary diagnosis and subsequent clinical evolution and emphasizes the cooperative interaction between the hematopathologist and the treating clinician that underlies optimal management. © 2013 USCAP, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Korbelik M.,British Columbia Cancer Agency
Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences | Year: 2011

The development of photodynamic therapy (PDT)-generated cancer vaccines is potentially one of the most significant achievements in the field of PDT. Employing vaccine protocols optimizes the capacity of PDT of inducing a strong immune response against treated tumor due to the establishment of highly favourable conditions for maximizing the avidity of the immune reaction while sustaining and prolonging its tumor-destroying attack. While the introduction of PDT vaccines into the clinics and testing on patients is still in a very early phase, much work can still be done on further improvement of the potency of PDT vaccines. Considerable advances can be expected by identifying the most effective adjuvants to be used with PDT vaccines, which will most likely be different with different types of cancerous lesions. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry and Owner Societies. Source

Connors J.M.,British Columbia Cancer Agency
Blood | Year: 2015

Treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma is associated with 2 major types of risk: that the treatment may fail to cure the disease or that the treatment will prove unacceptably toxic. Careful assessment of the amount of the lymphoma (tumor burden), its behavior (extent of invasion or specific organ compromise), and host related factors (age; coincident systemic infection; and organ dysfunction, especially hematopoietic, cardiac, or pulmonary) is essential to optimize outcome. Elaborately assembled prognostic scoring systems, such as the International Prognostic Factors Project score, have lost their accuracy and value as increasingly effective chemotherapy and supportive care have been developed. Identification of specific biomarkers derived from sophisticated exploration of Hodgkin lymphoma biology is bringing promise of further improvement in targeted therapy in which effectiveness is increased at the same time off-target toxicity is diminished. Parallel developments in functional imaging are providing additional potential to evaluate the efficacy of treatment while it is being delivered, allowing dynamic assessment of risk during chemotherapy and adaptation of the therapy in real time. Risk assessment in Hodgkin lymphoma is continuously evolving, promising ever greater precision and clinical relevance. This article explores the past usefulness and the emerging potential of risk assessment for this imminently curable malignancy. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology. Source

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