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Chave A.D.,Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution | Everett M.E.,Texas A&M University | Mattsson J.,PGS | Boon J.,Bristows LLP | Midgley J.,PGS
Geophysical Journal International | Year: 2017

In recent years, marine controlled source electromagnetics (CSEM) has found increasing use in hydrocarbon exploration due to its ability to detect thin resistive zones beneath the seafloor. It is the purpose of this paper to evaluate the physics of CSEM for an ocean whose electrical thickness is comparable to or much thinner than that of the overburden using the in-line configuration through examination of the elliptically polarized seafloor electric field, the time-averaged energy flow depicted by the real part of the complex Poynting vector, energy dissipation through Joule heating and the Fréchet derivatives of the seafloor field with respect to the subseafloor conductivity that is assumed to be isotropic. The deep water (ocean layer electrically much thicker than the overburden) seafloor EM response for a model containing a resistive reservoir layer has a greater amplitude and reduced phase as a function of offset compared to that for a half-space, or a stronger and faster response. For an ocean whose electrical thickness is comparable to or much smaller than that of the overburden, the electric field displays a greater amplitude and reduced phase at small offsets, shifting to a stronger amplitude and increased phase at intermediate offsets and a weaker amplitude and enhanced phase at long offsets, or a stronger and faster response that first changes to stronger and slower, and then transitions to weaker and slower. These transitions can be understood by visualizing the energy flow throughout the structure caused by the competing influences of the dipole source and guided energy flow in the reservoir layer, and the air interaction caused by coupling of the entire subseafloor resistivity structure with the sea surface. A stronger and faster response occurs when guided energy flow is dominant, while a weaker and slower response occurs when the air interaction is dominant. However, at intermediate offsets for some models, the air interaction can partially or fully reverse the direction of energy flux in the reservoir layer toward rather than away from the source, resulting in a stronger and slower response. The Fréchet derivatives are dominated by preferential sensitivity to the reservoir layer conductivity for all water depths except at high frequencies, but also display a shift with offset from the galvanic to the inductive mode in the underburden and overburden due to the interplay of guided energy flow and the air interaction. This means that the sensitivity to the horizontal conductivity is almost as strong as to the vertical component in the shallow parts of the subsurface, and in fact is stronger than the vertical sensitivity deeper down. However, the sensitivity to horizontal conductivity is still weak compared to the vertical component within thin resistive regions. The horizontal sensitivity is gradually decreased when the water becomes deep. These observations in part explain the success of shallow towed CSEM using only measurements of the in-line component of the electric field. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society.


Cohen L.,Bristows LLP | Davies C.,Bristows LLP
Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst | Year: 2013

The skilled person is a concept central to patent law, underpinning the analysis of obviousness, sufficiency, claim construction, novelty, added matter and priority. Identifying such a person correctly, particularly the level of skill and the common general knowledge that they should possess, is critical to determining whether a patent is valid and/or infringed and has significant implications for the pharmaceutical industry. However, the concept can be difficult to define. Once referred to as 'The man on the Clapham omnibus' of patent law, the skilled person is a technician who is skilled in the art yet wholly devoid of imagination. Nevertheless, his attributes and knowledge, which are context-dependent and vary from art to art, are continually evolving. This article will look at the evolution of the skilled person, focusing on the implications for the future of pharmaceutical patents and patent litigation. © 2013 Future Science Ltd.


Jones H.,Bristows LLP
European Pharmaceutical Review | Year: 2016

Biosimilars are becoming increasingly important in the European Union's biopharmaceutical landscape due to the increased growth of biologicals as key therapies and the financial pressure this puts on healthcare budgets. Both generic and innovator companies are players in the biosimilars market, and such drug products can present potential savings for payers. In certain cases biosimilars have gained over 90% of the market share within one to two years of launch1. This article examines the process for the approval of biosimilars in the EU; the way in which safety and risk management is conducted; and market access issues.


Allardyce S.,Bristows LLP | Boyle C.,Bristows LLP | Charlton E.,Bristows LLP | Collis P.,Bristows LLP | And 10 more authors.
Computer Law and Security Review | Year: 2014

This is the latest edition of the Bristows column on developments in EU law relating to IP, IT and telecommunications. This news article summarises recent developments that are considered important for practitioners, students and academics in a wide range of information technology, e-commerce, telecommunications and intellectual property areas. It cannot be exhaustive but intends to address the important points. This is a hard copy reference guide, but links to outside web sites are included where possible. No responsibility is assumed for the accuracy of information contained in these links. © 2014 Bristows. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved 2014.


Holder C.,Bristows LLP | Khurana V.,Bristows LLP | Harrison F.,Bristows LLP | Jacobs L.,Bristows LLP
Computer Law and Security Review | Year: 2016

In this edition, we explore some of the legal, regulatory and ethical implications of robots and robotic systems and applications. We begin by giving our view of why this emerging technology will become increasingly prevalent and why it is important that lawyers and regulators play an important role in its development. We go on to address the key legal, regulatory and ethical issues in respect of specific types of robotics, including automated vehicles and healthcare robots. We also focus on the impact that robotics will have on core legal practice areas, including data protection, intellectual property, consumer protection and commercial contracting. Our objective is to identify the key legal and regulatory implications of robotics, and to start a dialogue about how our existing legal framework might need to adapt and change to meet the demands of the robotics age. In the next edition, we will continue our focus on key legal issues in respect of different types of robotics and core legal practice areas relevant to the discussion. © 2016 Chris Holder.


Holder C.,Bristows LLP | Khurana V.,Bristows LLP | Hook J.,Bristows LLP | Bacon G.,Bristows LLP | Day R.,Bristows LLP
Computer Law and Security Review | Year: 2016

In the previous edition of this special series on robotics and law, we explored some of the legal, regulatory and ethical implications of robotic systems and applications. We continue on that theme in this edition, focusing on specific types of robotic systems (medical device robots and nanorobotics) and core legal and regulatory issues, including intellectual property, employment and cyber security. In exploring these areas, our objective remains to start a dialogue about how our existing legal frameworks might need to adapt and change to meet the demands of the robotics age. We then conclude this special series with our views on the future of robotics law and the development of legal practice in this area. © 2016 Bristows LLP


Cullen A.,Bristows LLP | Dass N.,Bristows LLP | Dickson C.,Bristows LLP | Giles R.,Bristows LLP | And 7 more authors.
Computer Law and Security Review | Year: 2014

This is the latest edition of the Bristows column on developments in EU law relating to IP, IT and telecommunications. This news article summarises recent developments that are considered important for practitioners, students and academics in a wide range of information technology, e-commerce, telecommunications and intellectual property areas. It cannot be exhaustive but intends to address the important points. This is a hard copy reference guide, but links to outside web sites are included where possible. No responsibility is assumed for the accuracy of information contained in these links. © 2014 Bristows LLP.


Allardyce S.,Bristows LLP | Collis P.,Bristows LLP | Cross N.,Bristows LLP | Evans A.,Bristows LLP | And 9 more authors.
Computer Law and Security Review | Year: 2014

This is the latest edition of the Bristows column on developments in EU law relating to IP, IT and telecommunications. This news article summarises recent developments that are considered important for practitioners, students and academics in a wide range of information technology, e-commerce, telecommunications and intellectual property areas. It cannot be exhaustive but intends to address the important points. This is a hard copy reference guide, but links to outside web sites are included where possible. No responsibility is assumed for the accuracy of information contained in these links. © 2014 Bristows. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Watts M.,Bristows LLP | Ohta T.,Bristows LLP | Collis P.,Bristows LLP | Tohala A.,Bristows LLP | And 5 more authors.
Computer Law and Security Review | Year: 2014

This is the latest edition of the Bristows column on developments in EU law relating to IP, IT and telecommunications. This news article summarises recent developments that are considered important for practitioners, students and academics in a wide range of information technology, e-commerce, telecommunications and intellectual property areas. It cannot be exhaustive but intends to address the important points. This is a hard copy reference guide, but links to outside web sites are included where possible. No responsibility is assumed for the accuracy of information contained in these links. © 2014 Bristows LLP.


PubMed | Bristows LLP
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pharmaceutical patent analyst | Year: 2013

The skilled person is a concept central to patent law, underpinning the analysis of obviousness, sufficiency, claim construction, novelty, added matter and priority. Identifying such a person correctly, particularly the level of skill and the common general knowledge that they should possess, is critical to determining whether a patent is valid and/or infringed and has significant implications for the pharmaceutical industry. However, the concept can be difficult to define. Once referred to as The man on the Clapham omnibus of patent law, the skilled person is a technician who is skilled in the art yet wholly devoid of imagination. Nevertheless, his attributes and knowledge, which are context-dependent and vary from art to art, are continually evolving. This article will look at the evolution of the skilled person, focusing on the implications for the future of pharmaceutical patents and patent litigation.

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