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Makungu M.,University of Pretoria | Makungu M.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | du Plessis W.M.,University of Trinidad and Tobago | Barrows M.,Bristol Zoo Gardens | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Medical Primatology | Year: 2014

Background: The ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) is a quadruped arboreal primate primarily distributed in south and south-western Madagascar. This study was carried out to describe the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of the ring-tailed lemur as a reference for clinical use. Methods: Radiography of the thorax was performed in 15 captive ring-tailed lemurs during their annual health examinations. Results: Normal radiographic reference ranges for thoracic structures were established and ratios were calculated, such as the vertebral heart score (VHS). The mean VHS on the right lateral and dorsoventral views was 8.92±0.47 and 9.42±0.52, respectively. Conclusions: Differences exist in the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of primates. Knowledge of the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of individual species is important and fundamental to assist in clinical cases and for accurate diagnosis of diseases. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Kubiak M.L.,Manor Veterinary Center | Jayson S.L.,Manor Veterinary Center | Saunders R.A.,Bristol Zoo Gardens
Journal of Medical Primatology | Year: 2015

Background: Goeldi's monkeys (Callimico goeldii) are callitrichid primates commonly kept in zoological collections, and to date, no cardiac parameters have been recorded. The vertebral heart score (VHS) is an objective method of evaluation of cardiac size well documented in domestic mammals, and the aim of this study was to determine the VHS in Goeldi's monkeys. Methods: In this retrospective study, right lateral radiographs of thirteen clinically well animals were reviewed and vertebral heart score determined. Results: The vertebral heart score was found to be 9.35 ± 0.31. Conclusions: The observed value appears consistent within the study population and with values for other primate species. The value determined may be of benefit in objectively evaluating cardiac size in this species. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source


Makungu M.,University of Pretoria | Du Plessis W.M.,University of Trinidad and Tobago | Barrows M.,Bristol Zoo Gardens | Koeppel K.N.,Johannesburg Zoo | Groenewald H.B.,University of Pretoria
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2013

An intact adult male 14.3-yr-old red panda (Ailurus fulgens) presented for health examination with a history of slowly progressing loss of body condition. Abdominal radiographs revealed a truncated abdomen with poor serosal abdominal detail and multiple areas of spondylosis with some collapsed intervertebral disc spaces. On computed tomography, multiple ovoid hypoattenuating lesions were seen in the left and right kidneys. Gross pathology and histopathology revealed multiple cystic lesions in the kidneys concurrent with pancreatic cysts on histopathology. To the best of the authors' knowledge, polycystic kidneys have not been reported in this species. © American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source


Koeppel K.N.,Johannesburg Zoo | Barrows M.,Bristol Zoo Gardens | Visser K.,Johannesburg Zoo
Theriogenology | Year: 2014

Red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) are threatened with extinction owing to habitat loss, exacerbated by their unique ecology and low fecundity. Regional breeding programs manage captive red panda populations. Recommendations not to breed may be made for various reasons, including genetic overrepresentation of certain individuals. No recommendations have been published on the use of contraception for red pandas. This article discusses the use of the GnRH analog deslorelin as a reversible method of contraception in both male and female pandas. The mean time from last contraception to conception was 3 years with a 4.6-mg deslorelin implant. The average dose of GnRH implant received was 1.09 mg/kg (range, 0.88-1.32). Males returned to breeding sooner than females. No reproductive side effects were noted with up to three consecutive annual GnRH implants. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source


Donati G.,Oxford Brookes University | Campera M.,Oxford Brookes University | Balestri M.,Oxford Brookes University | Serra V.,University of Pisa | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Primatology | Year: 2015

The ultimate determinants of cathemerality, i.e., activity spread over the 24-h cycle, in primates have been linked to various ecological factors. Owing to the fast rate of habitat modification, it is imperative to know whether and how this behavioral flexibility responds to anthropogenic disturbance. The true lemurs (Eulemur clade) constitute a valuable case to study these potential effects, as all species studied so far exhibit cathemerality. Here we explored the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on activity patterns of Eulemur while controlling for ecological factors proposed as determinants of activity shifts. We first performed a meta-analysis using 13 long-term studies conducted over the last three decades on various populations of Eulemur. We fitted a beta regression using the proportion of diurnality (the activity taking place between sunrise and sunset) as the response variable and seven climatic, ecological, and anthropogenic disturbance variables at each site as predictors. We also present a validation with original data using year-round, 24-h activity of collared brown lemurs (Eulemur collaris) in forest fragments with different levels of disturbance in southeastern Madagascar. Diurnality was prevalent at most sites. Seasonality, proportions of leaves in the diet, and group size were all found to be significant predictors of the proportion of diurnal activity. After controlling for socioecological factors in the model, overall anthropogenic disturbance emerged as a negative predictor of diurnality. Our validation suggests that the lemurs in the more disturbed area exhibited more nocturnal activity than those in the less disturbed area. It is unclear whether the plasticity observed might allow populations of Eulemur to persist in disturbed areas longer than lemurs with less flexible activity patterns. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York Source

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