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Kubiak M.L.,Manor Veterinary Center | Jayson S.L.,Manor Veterinary Center | Saunders R.A.,Bristol Zoo Gardens
Journal of Medical Primatology | Year: 2015

Background: Goeldi's monkeys (Callimico goeldii) are callitrichid primates commonly kept in zoological collections, and to date, no cardiac parameters have been recorded. The vertebral heart score (VHS) is an objective method of evaluation of cardiac size well documented in domestic mammals, and the aim of this study was to determine the VHS in Goeldi's monkeys. Methods: In this retrospective study, right lateral radiographs of thirteen clinically well animals were reviewed and vertebral heart score determined. Results: The vertebral heart score was found to be 9.35 ± 0.31. Conclusions: The observed value appears consistent within the study population and with values for other primate species. The value determined may be of benefit in objectively evaluating cardiac size in this species. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Chai N.,French Natural History Museum | Bronchain O.,University Paris - Sud | Panteix G.,Laboratoire Biomnis | Godreuil S.,Montpellier University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2012

Mycobacterium liflandii has been responsible for an emerging infection reported in the international trade of Western clawed frogs (Silurana tropicalis). This study shows that this mycolactone-producing Mycobacterium (MPM) has expanded its distribution range to France. The results of this study suggest that the use of in vitro fertilization to maintain genetic lines could be a temporary solution for valuable S. tropicalis propagation. Copyright © 2012 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.


Dagleish M.P.,Moredun Research Institute | Barrows M.,Bristol Zoo Gardens | Maley M.,Moredun Research Institute | Killick R.,Bristol Zoo Gardens | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Comparative Pathology | Year: 2013

Otarine herpesvirus (OtHV)-1-associated urogenital carcinoma has been well documented in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus, CSL), but this is the first report of this tumour in a captive South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis, SAFS). The gross and microscopical morphology of the tumour in the SAFS was identical to that described previously in CSLs and the tumour in the present case had metastasized within the urogenital tract and draining lymph nodes and to the lungs and one kidney. Immunohistochemistry revealed intra- and extracytoplasmic labelling of herpesvirus antigen in the cells of the tumour tissue and transitional epithelium of the urethra. OtHV-1 nucleic acids were detected within tumour tissue and from a urogenital swab by polymerase chain reaction. The ranges of these two species of pinniped do not overlap normally in the wild, suggesting that transmission of OtHV-1 probably occurred in captivity. This confirmed susceptibility of the SAFS to the development of OtHV-1-associated urogenital carcinoma suggests that all species of Otariidae should be screened for OtHV-1 infection prior to movement within and between zoological collections. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Makungu M.,University of Pretoria | Du Plessis W.M.,University of Trinidad and Tobago | Barrows M.,Bristol Zoo Gardens | Koeppel K.N.,Johannesburg Zoo | Groenewald H.B.,University of Pretoria
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2013

An intact adult male 14.3-yr-old red panda (Ailurus fulgens) presented for health examination with a history of slowly progressing loss of body condition. Abdominal radiographs revealed a truncated abdomen with poor serosal abdominal detail and multiple areas of spondylosis with some collapsed intervertebral disc spaces. On computed tomography, multiple ovoid hypoattenuating lesions were seen in the left and right kidneys. Gross pathology and histopathology revealed multiple cystic lesions in the kidneys concurrent with pancreatic cysts on histopathology. To the best of the authors' knowledge, polycystic kidneys have not been reported in this species. © American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.


Makungu M.,University of Pretoria | Du Plessis W.M.,Ross University School of Medicine | Barrows M.,Bristol Zoo Gardens | Groenewald H.B.,University of Pretoria | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2016

The ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) is primarily distributed in south and southwestern Madagascar. It is classified as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Various abdominal diseases, such as hepatic lipidosis, intestinal ulcers, cystitis, urinary tract obstruction, and neoplasia (e.g., colonic adenocarcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma), have been reported in this species. The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic and ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy in captive ring-tailed lemurs to provide guidance for clinical use. Radiography of the abdomen and ultrasonography of the liver, spleen, kidneys, and urinary bladder were performed in 13 and 9 healthy captive ring-tailed lemurs, respectively, during their annual health examinations. Normal radiographic and ultrasonographic reference ranges for abdominal organs were established and ratios were calculated. The majority (12/13) of animals had seven lumbar vertebrae. The sacrum had mainly (12/13) three segments. Abdominal serosal detail was excellent in all animals, and hypaxial muscles were conspicuous in the majority (11/13) of animals. The spleen was frequently (12/13) seen on the ventrodorsal (VD) view and rarely (3/13) on the right lateral (RL) view. The liver was less prominent and well contained within the ribcage. The pylorus was mostly (11/13) located to the right of the midline. The right and left kidneys were visible on the RL and VD views, with the right kidney positioned more cranial and dorsal to the left kidney. On ultrasonography, the kidneys appeared ovoid on transverse and longitudinal views. The medulla was hypoechoic to the renal cortex. The renal cortex was frequently (8/9) isoechoic and rarely (1/9) hyperechoic to the splenic parenchyma. The liver parenchyma was hypoechoic (5/5) to the renal cortex. Knowledge of the normal radiographic and ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy of ring-tailed lemurs may be useful in the diagnosis of diseases and in routine health examinations. © Copyright 2016 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.


News Article | February 23, 2016
Site: www.techtimes.com

A rare baby gorilla was delivered by Caesarean when her 11-year-old mother Kera showed pre-eclampsia symptoms. The baby girl, which has no name yet, weighed 2 pounds, 10 ounces when she was born at the Bristol Zoo Gardens in the United Kingdom. The C-section gorilla birth was the first of its kind in the UK and there are only a few instances of such in the world. According to the zoo's senior curator of animals John Partridge, the baby gorilla has not been shown to the public. Partridge added that a C-section gorilla birth is unusual but nonetheless rare and exciting. He said the team didn't take the C-section decision lightly. The team needed to act fast to prevent losing the unborn gorilla and to give both Kera and her baby the best treatment possible. The zoo's in-house team of veterinarians assessed Kera first. Bristol University's Dr. David Cahill provided the expert treatment. Cahill is a medical education and reproductive medicine professor at the university as well as a St. Michael's Hospital gynecologist. Cahill delivered hundreds of C-section babies in his long career, but it was the first time he conducted the procedure on a gorilla mother. On Feb. 12, Kera showed pre-eclampsia symptoms. While the exact cause remains unknown, pre-eclampsia is believed to happen when the placenta is problematic. The condition leads to very high blood pressure. The only treatment possible is to give birth. However, Kera's scans showed that the unborn baby was becoming unresponsive. The only option is to deliver the baby via C-section. After the administration of a general anesthetic at the zoo's clinic, Cahill and his colleague Dr. Aamna Ali proceeded with the C-section to save both Kera and her baby. Bristol's staff veterinarian Rowena Killic assisted in the procedure. "This was a very challenging operation and we are immensely grateful for the expert help we received which meant we were able to give care at the very highest level," said Killic. At first, the newborn gorilla needed external help from the vets to help her breathe, but is now recovering well. Both Kera and the baby, which was fathered by Komale, are being monitored closely by an experienced team of gorilla keepers.


Koeppel K.N.,Johannesburg Zoo | Barrows M.,Bristol Zoo Gardens | Visser K.,Johannesburg Zoo
Theriogenology | Year: 2014

Red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) are threatened with extinction owing to habitat loss, exacerbated by their unique ecology and low fecundity. Regional breeding programs manage captive red panda populations. Recommendations not to breed may be made for various reasons, including genetic overrepresentation of certain individuals. No recommendations have been published on the use of contraception for red pandas. This article discusses the use of the GnRH analog deslorelin as a reversible method of contraception in both male and female pandas. The mean time from last contraception to conception was 3 years with a 4.6-mg deslorelin implant. The average dose of GnRH implant received was 1.09 mg/kg (range, 0.88-1.32). Males returned to breeding sooner than females. No reproductive side effects were noted with up to three consecutive annual GnRH implants. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Casamian-Sorrosal D.,University of Bristol | Saunders R.,Bristol Zoo Gardens | Browne W.J.,University of Bristol | Elliott S.,University of Bristol | Fonfara S.,University of Bristol
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology | Year: 2014

Objectives The aim of the study was to report normal two-dimensional, M-mode, and Doppler echocardiographic findings from a large cohort of healthy, manually restrained, adult pet rabbits. Animals and methods Forty healthy pet rabbits [22 Dwarf Lops (DL), 14 French Lops (FL) and 4 Alaskan (AL)] underwent a full physical examination and conscious two-dimensional, M-mode, and Doppler echocardiography. Results The median age of the rabbits was 21.5 months, the median weight was 2.9 kg (DL: 2.4 kg, AL: 4.35 kg, FL: 6.0 kg). Echocardiography with ECG monitoring was feasible in all rabbits. Left atrial and ventricular dimensions were significantly larger in FL as compared to DL; overall, a positive correlation with weight was present. No significant differences between breeds were identified for flow velocities. Trace regurgitation was detected at the aortic valve in 7/40 (17.5%) rabbits, at the tricuspid valve in 5/40 (12.5%) and at the pulmonic valve in 1/40 (2.5%) rabbits. Mitral inflow E and A waves were summated in 60% of cases. Conclusions The results of this study can be used as echocardiographic values in FL and DL for comparison with clinical cases, and may also be applicable for other breeds of similar sizes. Breed specific values should be used when measuring left atrial and ventricular sizes. However, no breed or size differences were found for the rest of the echocardiographic parameters, which may therefore be applicable for the general pet rabbit population. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Lea S.E.G.,University of Exeter | McLaren I.P.L.,University of Exeter | Dow S.M.,Bristol Zoo Gardens | Graft D.A.,STMicroelectronics
Behavioural Processes | Year: 2012

How can animals learn the prey densities available in an environment that changes unpredictably from day to day, and how much effort should they devote to doing so, rather than exploiting what they already know? Using a two-armed bandit situation, we simulated several processes that might explain the trade-off between exploring and exploiting. They included an optimising model, dynamic backward sampling; a dynamic version of the matching law; the Rescorla-Wagner model; a neural network model; and e{open}-greedy and rule of thumb models derived from the study of reinforcement learning in artificial intelligence. Under conditions like those used in published studies of birds' performance under two-armed bandit conditions, all models usually identified the more profitable source of reward, and did so more quickly when the reward probability differential was greater. Only the dynamic programming model switched from exploring to exploiting more quickly when available time in the situation was less. With sessions of equal length presented in blocks, a session-length effect was induced in some of the models by allowing motivational, but not memory, carry-over from one session to the next. The rule of thumb model was the most successful overall, though the neural network model also performed better than the remaining models. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Bristol Zoo Gardens
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: The Veterinary record | Year: 2010

Treatment of intestinal coccidiosis was studied in domestic pet rabbits. In 45 rabbits aged four months or more, coccidial oocysts were observed in the faeces of 35 rabbits at a mean density of 806 opg (range 50 to 6800 opg). Eimeria magna was the dominant species, with Eimeria media and Eimeria intestinalis also being common. The presence of the hepatic species Eimeria stiedae was not recorded. A single oral dose of 2.5 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg toltrazuril, or a single oral dose of 50 mg/kg sulphadimethoxine followed by its inclusion in drinking water at 1 g/4 l for nine days, were all found to significantly reduce the faecal oocyst count by 73 to 99 per cent. The extent of oocyst reduction in the faeces was not dependent on the dose of toltrazuril. Oocyst counts began to rise again in the days after treatment ceased.

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