CINCINNATI, OH, United States

Brighton Technologies Group, Inc

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CINCINNATI, OH, United States
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Dillingham G.,Brighton Technologies Group, Inc | Oakley B.,Brighton Technologies Group, Inc | Voast P.J.V.,Boeing Company | Shelley P.H.,Boeing Company | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The theoretical relationship between surface energies and adhesion are briefly reviewed. Surface energies obtained from contact angles measurements can be extremely useful but difficult to obtain in manufacturing and field environments. A novel technique for probing surface energies via liquid drops, created using ballistic deposition, was investigated. The use of this technique as a quality assurance tool for detecting peel ply derived siloxane contaminants is discussed. It is shown that a readily detectable threshold amount of contamination is required to affect fracture toughness, and that the amount is similar for several distinct adhesive systems. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Dillingham G.,Brighton Technologies Group, Inc
Technical Paper - Society of Manufacturing Engineers | Year: 2014

The fundamental relationships between surface chemistry, surface morphology, and adhesion are briefly reviewed. The effect of typical metal and composite surface preparation processes on these surface properties is discussed. The use of wetting measurements to determine these properties and their ability to quantitatively predict failure mode and strength of adhesive/adherend interfaces is described. Industrial examples of these measurements are presented.


Dillingham G.,Brighton Technologies Group, Inc
Annual Technical Conference - ANTEC, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2013

Surface treatments of metals and polymers are frequently necessary to control properties such as adhesion of paints and sealants. Because surface properties are determined by only the uppermost few molecular layers, measuring these properties in manufacturing environments can be challenging. Water contact angles can be obtained very rapidly and conveniently and provide sensitive, quantitative feedback of surface properties important for adhesion.


Encinas N.,Charles III University of Madrid | Lavat-Gil M.,Charles III University of Madrid | Dillingham R.G.,Brighton Technologies Group, Inc | Abenojar J.,Charles III University of Madrid | Martinez M.A.,Charles III University of Madrid
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives | Year: 2014

The low surface energy and poor wetting properties of polymers make it necessary to modify prior to achieve adhesive bonding. This work is focused on the creation of wettable glass fibre reinforced epoxy and polyester composites, thus improving their adhesion performance. The key to evaluate this parameter as a function of the treatment with an atmospheric pressure plasma torch (APPT) device is the surface energy value. The chemical and morphological effects of APPT on the substrates are characterised by infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, while etching of APPT is studied by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. Benefits of APPT on the composites adhesive behaviour are evaluated through mechanical pull-off tests. Experimental results show an improvement in polarity and Lewis base behaviour of the surfaces as well as the creation of a rougher topography, which would be greatly helpful in the bonding process. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Giles Dillingham R.,Brighton Technologies Group, Inc
International SAMPE Technical Conference | Year: 2013

A primary consideration in adhesive bonding of composites is to create bonded structures that have predictable strength. The cohesive strengths of adhesives and composites are well understood and highly predictable. However, interfacial strength is a complex function of the interaction of the adhesive with the prepared substrate surface, and can be difficult to predict. For this reason interfacial failure is unacceptable, and failure mode may be a more important characteristic of composite-composite adhesive bonds than the ultimate strength. A somewhat weaker bond that always fails cohesively with a highly predictable failure load may be preferable to a stronger bond that fails interfacially on occasion due to poorly controlled surface treatment variables. Because of this, processes used to prepare a composite surface for bonding must be well understood and highly reproducible. This paper discusses the relationship between surface composition and failure mode, and demonstrates how conceptually simple measurements of the wetting properties of the surface with an inert probe fluid can be an excellent predictor of failure mode in bonded structures. Copyright 2013 by Aurora Flight Sciences.


Giles Dillingham R.,Brighton Technologies Group, Inc
International SAMPE Technical Conference | Year: 2013

Metals present extremely high energy, reactive surfaces to the environment. When mechanically or chemically cleaned, they rapidly oxidize and adsorb contaminants such as organic vapors. Polymers present surfaces that are less reactive towards their surroundings. When cleaned by abrasion processes they also show rapid changes due to oxidation and adsorption, but these changes tend to be of lower magnitude. Successful bonded repair of aircraft structures involves creating a small area of carefully controlled surface composition on metallic or polymeric surfaces. This area to be bonded is located within a larger area of material that may be contaminated with a variety of soils picked up during normal aircraft operation: organic and inorganic soils, fuel, hydraulic fluids, etc. Because of the reactivity of freshly prepared surfaces and the proximity and mobility of contaminants in the surrounding area, cleaning of these surfaces sufficiently to obtain reliable adhesive bonds can be particularly difficult in field situations. Furthermore, because the difference between a well-cleaned surface and a contaminated one may only be a few molecular layers, it can be difficult for the technician to establish when the surface has been properly prepared. Measurement of the geometry of a liquid drop deposited onto the surface can be done extremely rapidly and form the basis of a sensitive check of surface cleanliness and consistency in a repair depot or in challenging field situations. This paper discusses the use of these rapid wetting measurements for quality assurance of surface treatments for adhesively bonded repairs. Copyright 2013 by Aurora Flight Sciences.


Grant
Agency: National Science Foundation | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 703.61K | Year: 2015

The broader impact/commercial potential of this project will be to allow for more energy efficient surface treatment, more consistency in surface treatment processes, reduced scrap rates in manufacturing and more reliable bonded and coated structures. This in turn will reduce barriers to adoption of these inherently efficient manufacturing methods. Markets that have expressed keen interest in the proposed sensor technology include automotive OEM?s and their suppliers, major airframers and their suppliers, and manufacturers of general purpose surface treatment equipment. Other major markets include manufacturers of medical devices, consumer and industrial electronics, and food packaging. The theoretical and practical knowledge gained through this work will advance the ability to apply these principles to create robust surface free energy sensors. This understanding is critical for controlling many processes that depend on wetting phenomena, including printing, adhesive bonding, painting, rapid prototyping and additive manufacturing, application of agricultural chemicals, and aircraft deicing. This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 2 project will address the needs engendered by the current environmentally mandated shift from solvent-based adhesives and coatings to water-borne systems, which has made the control of surface treatment extremely critical. Currently, surface treatment processes are performed without feedback control. The quality of surface treatment is determined by expensive destructive testing. The proposed sensor is based on ultra rapid determination of the equilibrium shape of a miniscule drop of a probe liquid on the surface in question, a parameter directly related to the Gibbs free energy of the surface. The research objectives are to develop a fundamental understanding of the relationship between ballistic deposition parameters of small liquid drops, the morphology and energetics of a substrate surface, and the equilibrium drop geometry, and utilize this knowledge to design and construct prototype closed loop control surface processing equipment. This understanding will be developed primarily through high-speed imaging of the interaction of growing droplets with surfaces of various chemical composition and morphology. This knowledge will be incorporated into the design and construction of prototype surface processing equipment that includes closed loop feedback for precise control and verification of surface free energy.


Grant
Agency: National Science Foundation | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 149.25K | Year: 2013

This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I project will develop a realtime surface energy sensor that can be integrated into existing surface treatment systems to provide process control feedback. This sensor is based on a rapid microwetting measurement that is exceptionally responsive to surface free energy. Wetting measurements are a standard technique for determining surface free energies, but are slow and unwieldy to perform. The proposed approach involves ballistic deposition of a minute quantity of a probe fluid onto the surface. The vibration that accompanies deposition greatly facilitates attainment of equilibrium wetting of the surface. An image of the droplet is analyzed to determine the angle formed by the droplet tangent and the surface from drop volume and average diameter, which is a known function of the surface free energy. The equipment to accomplish this task can be readily integrated into existing robotically deployed surface treatment devices. The broader impact/commercial potential of this project will be to improve quality and yield of manufactured products through rapid, automated, and quantitative control of surface treatment properties. It will allow quantitative surface energy measurements, used for decades in laboratory settings, to transition into automated manufacturing control environments. Scientific and technological understanding will be enhanced by a deeper understanding of the effect of various surface treatment processes on extent and uniformity of surface energy and of the relationship of these properties to adhesion. This project will allow for more efficient, higher yield manufacturing processes that will increase the competitiveness of our domestic manufacturing. The initial market for this technology will include automotive OEM?s and their Tier suppliers, medical device manufacturers and manufacturers of consumer and industrial electronics, and food packaging.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: SMALL BUSINESS PHASE II | Award Amount: 713.61K | Year: 2015

The broader impact/commercial potential of this project will be to allow for more energy efficient surface treatment, more consistency in surface treatment processes, reduced scrap rates in manufacturing and more reliable bonded and coated structures. This in turn will reduce barriers to adoption of these inherently efficient manufacturing methods. Markets that have expressed keen interest in the proposed sensor technology include automotive OEM?s and their suppliers, major airframers and their suppliers, and manufacturers of general purpose surface treatment equipment. Other major markets include manufacturers of medical devices, consumer and industrial electronics, and food packaging. The theoretical and practical knowledge gained through this work will advance the ability to apply these principles to create robust surface free energy sensors. This understanding is critical for controlling many processes that depend on wetting phenomena, including printing, adhesive bonding, painting, rapid prototyping and additive manufacturing, application of agricultural chemicals, and aircraft deicing.

This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 2 project will address the needs engendered by the current environmentally mandated shift from solvent-based adhesives and coatings to water-borne systems, which has made the control of surface treatment extremely critical. Currently, surface treatment processes are performed without feedback control. The quality of surface treatment is determined by expensive destructive testing. The proposed sensor is based on ultra rapid determination of the equilibrium shape of a miniscule drop of a probe liquid on the surface in question, a parameter directly related to the Gibbs free energy of the surface. The research objectives are to develop a fundamental understanding of the relationship between ballistic deposition parameters of small liquid drops, the morphology and energetics of a substrate surface, and the equilibrium drop geometry, and utilize this knowledge to design and construct prototype closed loop control surface processing equipment. This understanding will be developed primarily through high-speed imaging of the interaction of growing droplets with surfaces of various chemical composition and morphology. This knowledge will be incorporated into the design and construction of prototype surface processing equipment that includes closed loop feedback for precise control and verification of surface free energy.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 149.25K | Year: 2013

This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I project will develop a realtime surface energy sensor that can be integrated into existing surface treatment systems to provide process control feedback. This sensor is based on a rapid microwetting measurement that is exceptionally responsive to surface free energy. Wetting measurements are a standard technique for determining surface free energies, but are slow and unwieldy to perform. The proposed approach involves ballistic deposition of a minute quantity of a probe fluid onto the surface. The vibration that accompanies deposition greatly facilitates attainment of equilibrium wetting of the surface. An image of the droplet is analyzed to determine the angle formed by the droplet tangent and the surface from drop volume and average diameter, which is a known function of the surface free energy. The equipment to accomplish this task can be readily integrated into existing robotically deployed surface treatment devices.

The broader impact/commercial potential of this project will be to improve quality and yield of manufactured products through rapid, automated, and quantitative control of surface treatment properties. It will allow quantitative surface energy measurements, used for decades in laboratory settings, to transition into automated manufacturing control environments. Scientific and technological understanding will be enhanced by a deeper understanding of the effect of various surface treatment processes on extent and uniformity of surface energy and of the relationship of these properties to adhesion. This project will allow for more efficient, higher yield manufacturing processes that will increase the competitiveness of our domestic manufacturing. The initial market for this technology will include automotive OEM?s and their Tier suppliers, medical device manufacturers and manufacturers of consumer and industrial electronics, and food packaging.

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