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Brighton, United Kingdom

Peters A.M.,Brighton Sussex Medical School
Medical Hypotheses | Year: 2012

It is not known why metastases from epithelial cancers are rare in the spleen, yet common in the other major organs of the reticuloendothelial system in which, like the spleen, leucocytes display a prolonged physiological intravascular transit time. Another unresolved issue that at first seems unrelated to splenic metastases is the inconsistency between the concept of physiological granulocyte disposal through granulocyte ageing and the observation that granulocytes leave the blood in an exponential fashion (half-time 7. h), which implies random disposal. Intravascular granulocytes pass through the spleen with an exponential distribution of transit times (mean 10. min). The spleen is highly active in physiological granulocyte destruction so it is suggested that the variation in times of exposure to the splenic microenvironment converts the age-dependent granulocyte destruction observed ex vivo into the random process observed in vivo, probably through exposure to apoptosis-inducing signals. This leads to the second hypothesis, which is that cancer cells fail to survive in the spleen as a result of these pro-apoptotic signals. © 2011. Source


Dizdarevic S.,University of Sussex | Aplin M.,University of Sussex | Newport M.J.,Brighton Sussex Medical School | Ryan N.,University of Sussex | And 6 more authors.
Nuclear Medicine Communications | Year: 2014

AIM: Calcineurin inhibitors are substrates for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the expression of which is associated with ABCB1 C3435T polymorphism. Individual P-gp response to calcineurin inhibitor may be linked to nephrotoxicity or rejection. 99mTc-2-Methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) is also a P-gp substrate. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine 99mTc-MIBI organ kinetics and compare them with ABCB1 genotype with a view to replacing 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine ( 99mTc-MAG3) with 99mTc-MIBI in renal transplant care. METHODS: Thirty prospective donors (13 male) were imaged for 20min after administration of 99mTc-MIBI (400MBq) intravenously. Posterior images of the abdomen were acquired at 30 and 120min. Organ 30min/peak count rate ratios and exponential two-point (30-120min) rate constants (k, min -1) were calculated. Nineteen donors were genotyped for C3435T (exon 26), G2677T (exon 21), C1236T (exon 12), and G1199A (exon 11) ABCB1 polymorphisms using a PCR-based technique. RESULTS: 99mTc-MIBI and 99mTc-MAG3 gave similar perfusion images. Although their patterns of renal elimination were different, differential renal function was not significantly different. There was a negative trend between the hepatic 30min/peak ratio and C3435T genotype (CC: 0.8374±0.0502; TC: 0.6806±0.1300; TT: 0.6919±0.1506; P=0.083). Renal k showed a negative trend with C3435T (CC: 0.0021±0.0020; TC: 0.0037±0.0013; TT: 0.0040±0.0012min-1; P=0.087) but with no other genotypes. There were no significant sex-related differences in 99mTc-MIBI kinetics. CONCLUSION: 99mTc-MIBI can replace 99mTc-MAG3 for pretransplant workup. The ABCB1 C3435T polymorphism may influence 99mTc-MIBI kinetics and thus have a role in renal transplant care. Further prospective trials are required to establish the full potential of 99mTc-MIBI in renal transplant management. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Source


Heidari-Bakavoli A.R.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | Esmaeili H.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | Hosseini Z.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | Moohebati M.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | And 7 more authors.
Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2015

The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of adiposity in a sample of 35-65 years old individuals from Mashhad in North Eastern Iran, and to ascertain the socioeconomic factors contributing to obesity. The MASHAD study was initiated in 2010 and is a longitudinal cohort study of 9765 individuals aged 35-65 years old. It used a stratified cluster randomized sampling design. Anthropometric measurements [height, weight and waist circumference (WC)] were measured by standard methods. The criteria for under-weight, normal-weight, overweight, and obesity were a BMI of 18.5>, 18.5 to 24.9, 25 to 29.9, 30< (kg/m2), respectively. Abdominal obesity was defined as WC ≥102 cm in men and WC ≥88 cm in women and obesity was defined as BMI ≥30. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and chi-square tests were used to determine whether different categories of demographic and lifestyle variables were associated with different degrees of adiposity. The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight were 30.9% and 42.8% respectively. The overall prevalence of central obesity was 46.7%. The prevalence of obesity in women was higher than in men (P < 0.0001). There was an inverse relationship between the risk of obesity and increasing socioeconomic status (P < 0.0001). Adiposity is prevalent in Mashhad, and appears to be particularly common in women. This may be due to the high levels of physical inactivity in the population as a whole and among women in particular. © 2015-IOS Press and the authors. Source


Boskabadi H.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | Maamouri G.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | Tavakkol Afshari J.,Avicenna Research Institute | Zakerihamidi M.,Islamic Azad University at Tonekabon | And 6 more authors.
Archives of Iranian Medicine | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Perinatal asphyxia is an important cause of death, as well as permanent neurological and developmental complications. Diagnosing in time would lead to better prognosis and applying the most proper treatment. We sought to define the predictive values of serum concentrations of interleukin -1β (IL-1β) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in newborns with perinatal asphyxia to see if there is a relation between the short-term neurological deficit and serum IL-1β and IL-6 concentrations. METHODS: This was a prospective (case-control) study conducted between March 2006 and April 2013, at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Mashhad, Iran.Serum IL-1β and IL-6 levels were measured at birth in 38 consecutive uninfected neonates with perinatal asphyxia (blood pH < 7.2, low Apgar score, signs of fetal distress) and 47 randomly selected healthy newborns.The results were compared between the groups, using Chi-Square, t-tests, and Mann-Whitney tests, as well as receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curves and regression models. RESULTS: Serum IL-1β and IL-6 concentrations in the infants who developed perinatal asphyxia were significantly higher compared to values in the normal infants [16.88 vs 3.34 pg/mL for IL-1β, (P = 0.006), and 88.15 vs 6.74 pg/ mL for IL-6, (P < 0.001) respectively]. The sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of perinatal asphyxia using serum IL-6 were 80.5% and 81.6% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity using serum IL-1β were 71% and 89.1%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Evaluating serum IL-6 and 1β simultaneously, could improve the sensitivity and specificity of early diagnosis of the perinatal asphyxia. The most appropriate indicator of perinatal asphyxia is combined measurement of interleukin 1β and interleukin 6. © 2016, Academy of Medical Sciences of I.R. Iran. All rights reserved. Source


Mohammadi M.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | Mohammadi M.,Payame Noor University | Avan A.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | Emamian M.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Dietary Supplements | Year: 2016

Purpose: We have investigated the association between markers of renal function [serum urea nitrogen, creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)] and age and lipid profile in an Iranian population sample of 4,567 subjects. Materials/methods: Serum creatinine and urea nitrogen, together with anthropometric parameters and lipid profile were determined in all the subjects. eGFR was calculated using the modification of diet in renal disease formula. Results: Serum creatinine and urea nitrogen increased with age (p < .05), and this relationship was also more pronounced in men compared to women. Increased levels of these renal function markers were significantly associated with altered lipid profiles. Conclusion: Levels of renal function markers increased with age and were associated with altered lipid profile. 2016 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Source

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