PubMed | Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Desmond Tutu Health Foundation, Investigaciones Medicas en Salud, Fenway Health and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The lancet. HIV | Year: 2016
As pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine for the prevention of HIV infection is rolled out internationally, strategies to maintain effectiveness and to minimise adverse effects merit consideration. In this study, we aimed to assess reductions in renal function and predictors of renal toxicity in a large open-label study of PrEP.As part of the iPrEx open-label extension (OLE) study, men who have sex with men or transgender women aged 18-70 years who were HIV negative and had participated in three previous PrEP trials from Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, South Africa, Thailand, and the USA were enrolled into an open-label PrEP study. There were no restrictions on current renal function for enrolment into iPrEx OLE, in which participants were given combination tablets of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg) and emtricitabine (200 mg) and advised to take one tablet per day. At follow-up sessions every 12 weeks, participants creatinine clearance on PrEP was estimated and in a subset of participants, hair samples were collected to measure tenofovir and emtricitabine concentrations (a measure of adherence and exposure) via liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry. Reductions in creatinine clearance from baseline were calculated and predictors of decline were identified by use of multivariate models. iPrEx is registered with ClinicalTrials.com, number NCT00458393.Baseline characteristics were similar between all participants in iPrEx-OLE (1224 participants with 7475 person-visits) and those participating in the hair substudy (220 participants with 1114 person-visits). During a median of 72 weeks, the mean decline in creatinine clearance was -29% (95% CI -24 to -34; pOur data suggest that the frequency of safety monitoring for PrEP might need to be different between age groups and that pharmacological measures can monitor for toxic effects as well as adherence.National Institutes of Health.