Karachi, Pakistan
Karachi, Pakistan

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Badshah M.,University of Dundee | Soames R.,University of Dundee | Khan M.J.,Khyber Medical University | Hasnain J.,Bridge Consultants Foundation | Khan J.,Peshawar Medical College
International Journal of Morphology | Year: 2016

SUMMARY: Knowledge of variations in MF location, size and shape is important when anesthetizing nerves of the mandibular region in dental procedures. The location, shape and position of the MF were determined in 119 human mandibles of unknown age and sex from different KP medical institutions. Parameters determined were: MF length and width; accessory mental foramen (AMF) width; MF and AMF to midline (MF-ML) (AMF-ML), upper (MF-UM) (AMF-UM) and lower mandibular margins (MF-LM) (AMF-LM) and posterior border of the mandibular ramus (MF-PRM) (AMF-PRM). AMF position in relation to the MF was also noted. MF were mainly oval and situated below the second premolar. MF mean length and width were: 2.4 ± 0.89 (right) and 2.4 ± 0.727 mm (left), and 3.0 ± 0.80 (right) and 2.9 ± 0.94 mm (left) respectively. MF-ML, MF-UM, MF-LM and MF-PRM distances on the right and left sides were: 29.1 ± 2.19 mm and 28.1 ± 2.12 mm; 11.0 ± 3.99 mm and 11.2 ± 3.98 mm; 13.1 ± 1.83 mm and 12.8 ± 1.74 mm; and 69.3 ± 5.52 mm and 68.7 ± 5.02 mm, respectively. Double mental foramen (DMF) were observed on both sides (10.9 % right, 12.6 % left) with length and width 0.7 ± 0.42 mm and 0.9 ± 0.34 mm (right) and 0.8 ± 0.32 mm and 1.0 ± 0.47 mm (left): they were mainly oval (5.8 % right, 7.56 % left). DMF-MF distance was 8.9 ± 4.58 mm on the right and 6.6 ± 4.11 mm on the left. An oval accessory mental foramen was observed in one mandible. There was no difference between right and left MF; however differences in the parameters measured were observed in relation to other populations indicating the need to be aware of such differences when undertaking surgical procedures around the MF. © 2016, Universidad de la Frontera. All rights reserved.


Samo R.N.,Bridge Consultants Foundation | Altaf A.,Aga Khan University | Memon A.,Enhanced HIV Control Programme | Shah S.A.,Enhanced HIV Control Programme
Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association | Year: 2013

Objective: To assess the determinants of HIV sero-conversion among male injection drug users enrolled in needle exchange programme at Karachi. Methods: An unmatched retrospective case control study was conducted among male injection drug users receiving needle exchange services in Karachi. The cases and controls were identified from one drop in center providing needle exchange services. The data for the study participants was collected retrospectively from the programme. Descriptive statistics, univariat analysis, and multivariate regression analysis for determinants of HIV sero-conversion and Hosmer and Lameshow goodness of fit test for model adequacy were performed. Results: Mean age of the study participants was 34.17 ± 10.74 years. Average monthly income of the participants was US$ 125.15±76.32. In unconditional multivariate regression analysis being unmarried (AOR: 3.0 95% CI 1.14-7.9, p=0.02), not living with family (AOR: 2.8 95% CI 1.18-6.79 p=0.02), family history of addiction (AOR: 2.5, 95% CI 1.01- 6.49, p=0.04), injecting drugs in groups (AOR: 2.8, 95% CI 1.12 7.02 p=0.02), not obtaining syringes from the programme (AOR:26.45, 95% CI 2.47-282.8 p=0.007), and history of blood transfusion (AOR: 52.9, 95% CI 1.32- 2118.416 p=0.03) were significantly associated with HIV positive sero-status. Model adequacy was assessed by 'Hosmer and Lameshow goodness of (J: 4.95, p=0.7) indicating that the model was accurate. Conclusion: Social and drug related risky behaviours are important determinants of HIV among male IDUs in Karachi. The situation calls for programmematic initiatives for addressing the risky behaviours among IDUs for effective control of epidemic in the country.


Kazi A.M.,Vanderbilt University | Kazi A.M.,Bridge Consultants Foundation | Shah S.A.,Bridge Consultants Foundation | Shah S.A.,Dow University of Health Sciences | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the burden of sexual- and injection drug use-related infections in male prisoners in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: We administered a structured questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey of 365 randomly selected imprisoned men. We analyzed blood for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) by ELISA, and for syphilis by rapid plasma reagin with Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay confirmation. Subjects with possible tuberculosis (World Health Organization criteria) provided sputum samples for an acid-fast bacillus smear and culture. Results: The prevalence of tuberculosis was 2.2% (95% CI 0.71-3.8%). Of 357 of the randomly selected prisoners (eight refused to give blood), 2.0% (95% CI 0.6-3.4) were HIV-infected; syphilis was confirmed in 8.9% (95% CI 6.0-11.8%), HBV in 5.9% (95% CI 3.5-8.3%), and HCV in 15.2% (95% CI 11.7-18.8). By self-report, 59.2% had used any illicit drugs, among whom 11.8% (95% CI 8.5-15.0) had injected drugs. The median length of stay in the prison had been 3.2 (range 1-72) months. Conclusions: All four infections were prevalent among the prisoners in Pakistan. Prisons are excellent venues for infectious disease screening and intervention given the conditions of poverty and drug addiction. Collaboration with community-based health providers is vital for post-discharge planning. © 2010 International Society for Infectious Diseases.


Altaf A.,Bridge Consultants Foundation | Shah S.A.,Bridge Consultants Foundation | Shaikh K.,Bridge Consultants Foundation | Constable F.M.,World Health Organization | Khamassi S.,World Health Organization
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2013

Background: A national study in 2007 revealed that in Pakistan the prevalence of hepatitis B is 2.5% and for hepatitis C it is 5%. Unsafe injections have been identified as one of the reasons for the spread of these infections. Trained and untrained providers routinely perform unsafe practices primarily for economic reasons i.e. they reuse injection equipment on several patients. The patients, do not question the provider about the need for an injection because of social barriers or whether the syringe is coming from a new sterile packet due to lack of knowledge. The present paper represents an intervention that was developed to empower the community to improve unsafe injection practices in rural Pakistan. Methods. In a rural district of Pakistan (Tando Allahyar, Sindh) with a population of approximately 630,000 a multipronged approach was used in 2010 (June to December) to improve injection safety. The focus of the intervention was the community, however providers were not precluded. The organization of interventions was also carefully planned. A baseline assessment (n=300) was conducted prior to the intervention. The interventions comprised large scale gatherings of the community (males and females) across the district. Smaller gatherings included teachers, imams of mosques and the training of trained and untrained healthcare providers. The Pakistan Television Network was used to broadcast messages recorded by prominent figures in the local language. The local FM channel and Sunday newspaper were also used to disseminate messages on injection safety. An end of project assessment was carried out in January 2012. The study was ethically reviewed and approved. Results: The interventions resulted in improving misconceptions about transmission of hepatitis B and C. In the baseline assessment (only 9%) of the respondents associated hepatitis B and C with unsafe injections which increased to 78% at the end of project study. In the baseline study 15% of the study participants reported that a new syringe was used for their most recent injection. The post-intervention findings showed an increase to 29% (n=87). Conclusion: It is difficult to assess the long-term impact of the intervention but there were several positive indicators. The duration of intervention is the key to achieving a meaningful impact. It has to be at least 18-24 months long. © 2013 Altaf et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Shah S.A.,Bridge Consultants Foundation | Qayyum S.,Dow University of Health Sciences | Abro R.,Bridge Consultants Foundation | Baig S.,Dow University of Health Sciences | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Although household contacts of persons with tuberculosis (TB) have high rates of active TB, contact investigations are often not conducted. We present the results from a large-scale active contact investigation combined with treatment support in Sindh, Pakistan. METHODS: Trained lay workers visited consenting smear-positive index patient homes in seven urban and 15 rural facilities. People with suspected TB were provided free transport to diagnostic centres, and sputum samples were collected for microscopy. Those diagnosed with smear-positive TB were given food baskets and sent text reminders to promote adherence. RESULTS: From 3037 index cases, 19 191 household contacts were screened for TB symptoms and 3478 (18.1%) symptomatic persons were identified. Of these, 2160 (62.1%) produced sputum samples on the spot for testing and 490 (22.7%) had smear-positive results. TB prevalence in urban households was 1504 per 100 000 population compared to 4044/100 000 in rural households (P < 0.001) and 2553/100 000 overall. Treatment success was high, with 80.4% cured and 17.6% completing treatment. DISCUSSION: Lay workers given basic training can conduct active contact investigations and provide treatment support to improve case detection and treatment outcomes in urban and rural areas of Pakistan. In areas with high levels of undiagnosed TB, particularly in rural areas, contact investigation should be prioritised as a means of improving case detection and early diagnosis. © 2013 The Union.


PubMed | Blood Systems Research Institute, Bridge Consultants Foundation, Duke University and Aga Khan University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

A number of HIV-1 subtypes are identified in Pakistan by characterization of partial viral gene sequences. Little is known whether new recombinants are generated and how they disseminate since whole genome sequences for these viruses have not been characterized. Near full-length genome (NFLG) sequences were obtained by amplifying two overlapping half genomes or next generation sequencing from 34 HIV-1-infected individuals in Pakistan. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the newly characterized sequences were 16 subtype As, one subtype C, and 17 A/G recombinants. Further analysis showed that all 16 subtype A1 sequences (47%), together with the vast majority of sequences from Pakistan from other studies, formed a tight subcluster (A1a) within the subtype A1 clade, suggesting that they were derived from a single introduction. More in-depth analysis of 17 A/G NFLG sequences showed that five shared similar recombination breakpoints as in CRF02 (15%) but were phylogenetically distinct from the prototype CRF02 by forming a tight subcluster (CRF02a) while 12 (38%) were new recombinants between CRF02a and A1a or a divergent A1b viruses. Unique recombination patterns among the majority of the newly characterized recombinants indicated ongoing recombination. Interestingly, recombination breakpoints in these CRF02/A1 recombinants were similar to those in prototype CRF02 viruses, indicating that recombination at these sites more likely generate variable recombinant viruses. The dominance and fast dissemination of new CRF02a/A1 recombinants over prototype CRF02 suggest that these recombinant have more adapted and may become major epidemic strains in Pakistan.


PubMed | Bridge Consultants Foundation, Sindh AIDS Control Programme, Pakistan Society, Vanderbilt University and Aga Khan University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2013

The incidence of HIV among persons who inject drugs (PWIDU) has fallen in many nations, likely due to successes of clean needle/syringe exchange and substance abuse treatment and service programs. However in Pakistan, prevalence rates for PWID have risen dramatically. In several cities, prevalence exceeded 20% by 2009 compared to a 2003 baseline of just 0.5%. However, no cohort study of PWID has ever been conducted.We enrolled a cohort of 636 HIV seronegative PWID registered with three drop-in centers that focus on risk reduction and basic social services in Karachi. Recruitment began in 2009 (March to June) and PWID were followed for two years. We measured incidence rates and risk factors associated with HIV seroconversion.Incidence of HIV was 12.4 per 100 person-years (95% exact Poisson confidence interval [CI]: 10.3-14.9). We followed 474 of 636 HIV seronegative persons (74.5%) for two years, an annual loss to follow-up of <13 per 100 person years. In multivariable Cox regression analysis, HIV seroconversion was associated with non-Muslim religion (Adjusted risk ratio [ARR] = 1.7, 95%CI:1.4, 2.7, p = 0.03), sharing of syringes (AR = 2.3, 95%CI:1.5, 3.3, p<0.0001), being homeless (ARR = 1.7, 95%CI:1.1, 2.5, p = 0.009), and daily injection of drugs (ARR = 1.1, 95%CI:1.0, 1.3, p = 0.04).Even though all members of the cohort of PWID were attending risk reduction programs, the HIV incidence rate was very high in Karachi from 2009-2011. The project budget was low, yet we were able to retain three-quarters of the population over two years. Absence of opiate substitution therapy and incomplete needle/syringe exchange coverage undermines success in HIV risk reduction.


PubMed | Bridge Consultants Foundation
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2013

Although household contacts of persons with tuberculosis (TB) have high rates of active TB, contact investigations are often not conducted. We present the results from a large-scale active contact investigation combined with treatment support in Sindh, Pakistan.Trained lay workers visited consenting smear-positive index patient homes in seven urban and 15 rural facilities. People with suspected TB were provided free transport to diagnostic centres, and sputum samples were collected for microscopy. Those diagnosed with smear-positive TB were given food baskets and sent text reminders to promote adherence.From 3037 index cases, 19,191 household contacts were screened for TB symptoms and 3478 (18.1%) symptomatic persons were identified. Of these, 2160 (62.1%) produced sputum samples on the spot for testing and 490 (22.7%) had smear-positive results. TB prevalence in urban households was 1504 per 100,000 population compared to 4044/100,000 in rural households (P < 0.001) and 2553/100,000 overall. Treatment success was high, with 80.4% cured and 17.6% completing treatment.Lay workers given basic training can conduct active contact investigations and provide treatment support to improve case detection and treatment outcomes in urban and rural areas of Pakistan. In areas with high levels of undiagnosed TB, particularly in rural areas, contact investigation should be prioritised as a means of improving case detection and early diagnosis.


PubMed | Bridge Consultants Foundation, World Health Organization, Vanderbilt University, Sindh AIDS Control Program and Aga Khan University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Retention of male people who inject drugs (PWIDs) is a major challenge for harm reduction programs that include sterile needle/syringe exchange in resource-limited settings like Pakistan. We assessed the risk factors for loss to follow-up among male PWIDs enrolled in a risk reduction program in Karachi, Pakistan.We conducted a prospective cohort study among 636 HIV-uninfected male PWIDs enrolled during March-June 2009 in a harm reduction program for the estimation of incidence rate. At 24 months post-enrollment, clients who had dropped out of the program were defined as lost to follow-up and included as cases for case-cohort study.The median age of the participants was 29 years (interquartile range: 23-36). Active outreach accounted for 76% (483/636) of cohort recruits. Loss to follow-up at 24 months was 25.5% (162/636). In multivariable logistic regression, younger age (AOR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.92-0.99, p = 0.028), clients from other provinces than Sindh (AOR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.01-2.22, p = 0.046), having no formal education (AOR: 3.44, 95% CI: 2.35-4.90, p<0.001), a history of incarceration (AOR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.14-2.46, p<0.008), and being homeless (AOR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.00-2.19, p<0.049) were associated with loss to follow-up.Our cohort retained 74.5% of male PWIDs in Karachi for 24 months. Its loss to follow up rate suggested substantial ongoing programmatic challenges. Programmatic enhancements are needed for the highest risk male PWIDs, i.e., younger men, men not from Sindh Province, men who are poorly educated, formerly incarcerated, and/or homeless.


PubMed | Bridge Consultants Foundation
Type: | Journal: BMC research notes | Year: 2013

A national study in 2007 revealed that in Pakistan the prevalence of hepatitis B is 2.5% and for hepatitis C it is 5%. Unsafe injections have been identified as one of the reasons for the spread of these infections. Trained and untrained providers routinely perform unsafe practices primarily for economic reasons i.e. they reuse injection equipment on several patients. The patients, do not question the provider about the need for an injection because of social barriers or whether the syringe is coming from a new sterile packet due to lack of knowledge. The present paper represents an intervention that was developed to empower the community to improve unsafe injection practices in rural Pakistan.In a rural district of Pakistan (Tando Allahyar, Sindh) with a population of approximately 630,000 a multipronged approach was used in 2010 (June to December) to improve injection safety. The focus of the intervention was the community, however providers were not precluded. The organization of interventions was also carefully planned. A baseline assessment (n=300) was conducted prior to the intervention. The interventions comprised large scale gatherings of the community (males and females) across the district. Smaller gatherings included teachers, imams of mosques and the training of trained and untrained healthcare providers. The Pakistan Television Network was used to broadcast messages recorded by prominent figures in the local language. The local FM channel and Sunday newspaper were also used to disseminate messages on injection safety. An end of project assessment was carried out in January 2012. The study was ethically reviewed and approved.The interventions resulted in improving misconceptions about transmission of hepatitis B and C. In the baseline assessment (only 9%) of the respondents associated hepatitis B and C with unsafe injections which increased to 78% at the end of project study. In the baseline study 15% of the study participants reported that a new syringe was used for their most recent injection. The post-intervention findings showed an increase to 29% (n=87).It is difficult to assess the long-term impact of the intervention but there were several positive indicators. The duration of intervention is the key to achieving a meaningful impact. It has to be at least 18-24 months long.

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