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Slattery S.L.,Innovative Food Technologies | Palmer P.J.,Bribie Island Research Center
Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology | Year: 2014

The marketing of organically labeled prawns is predominately in a cooked or raw frozen form to avoid the development of melanosis (black spot). Certification for organic status prohibits the use of any added chemicals. The application of 60% CO2/40%N2 modified atmosphere to chilled (raw) prawns using two species of prawn was investigated for the ability to control black spot formation. Sensory assessment and microbiological counts were used to determine the end of product shelf life. Modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) prawns exhibited no melanosis for up to 16 days. The high quality life was retained for 12 days; shelf life of 16 days, according to standard microbiological criteria, was achieved, which is more than twice previously reported for non-MAP prawns. Results suggest MAP may be an effective method for the marketing of organically grown prawns as well as those produced by conventional prawn aquaculture without application of the normal chemicals used to prevent black spot. Copyright © 2014 Crown Copyright.

Leland J.C.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | Leland J.C.,Southern Cross University of Australia | Butcher P.A.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | Broadhurst M.K.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | And 2 more authors.
Fisheries Research | Year: 2013

Australian recreational fishers targeting Portunus pelagicus are regulated by unverified gear restrictions which, combined with size, sex and quota regulations, result in >40% of their catches being discarded; all with unknown fate. To address these issues, we investigated the relative efficiency and temporal selectivity of "round", "rectangular" and "wire" pots, and "hoop nets" set for 3, 6, and 24. h and the subsequent injury, physiological stress and mortality (in cages with controls over three days) of discarded P. pelagicus (37-85. mm carapace length - CL). Undersized (<60. mm CL) and ovigerous P. pelagicus comprised 22% and 4% of the total catch. Irrespective of soak time, round pots caught significantly more P. pelagicus and teleost bycatch. Five percent of individuals lost 1-3 appendages, usually during disentanglement, and only 1.1% of discarded P. pelagicus died (all within 24. h). Haemolymph parameters were mostly affected by biological, rather than technical factors. The results support the mandatory discarding of P. pelagicus, but pot selectivity might be improved via escape vents or larger mesh sizes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Leland J.C.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | Leland J.C.,Southern Cross University of Australia | Butcher P.A.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | Broadhurst M.K.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | And 2 more authors.
Fisheries Research | Year: 2013

Large numbers of Sagmariasus verreauxi are trapped and hand collected in Australia, but discarded due to size and quota restrictions, and under the unevaluated assumption of few impacts. To test the validity of enforced discarding, trapped and hand-collected S. verreauxi (49-143. mm carapace length - CL) were examined for external damage, placed into cages, transferred to aquaria and monitored (with controls) over three months. Haemolymph was non-repetitively sampled immediately and at one, three, and seven days to quantify stress. Most trapped (64%) and hand-collected (79%) specimens were undersized (<104. mm CL), with the latter method yielding broader ranges of sizes and moult stages. Within-trap Octopus tetricus predation caused the only mortalities (3.3%). Hand collection resulted in much greater antennae and pereopod loss than trapping (53 vs. 4%) but, compared to controls, both methods evoked benign physiological responses that resolved within a week. While most wounded S. verreauxi regenerated all or some missing appendages post-moult, their mean CLs were less than those from intact conspecifics. Simple strategies, including larger mesh sizes, and/or installing modifications to reduce bycatch in traps, careful hand collection, and appropriate release techniques might minimise impacts (including predation) to unwanted S. verreauxi, and help to control stock exploitation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Moran D.,Lund University | Smith C.K.,NIWA - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research | Lee P.S.,Bribie Island Research Center | Pether S.J.,NIWA - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research
Aquatic Biology | Year: 2011

A study was undertaken to measure the effects of conspecific density on the growth, mortality and deformity rate of yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi Valenciennes during the first feeding period. Newly hatched larvae were stocked in replicate tanks at initial densities of 40, 60 and 100 ind. l-1 until 30 d post-hatch (DPH). Live prey was administered at frequent intervals in an effort to maintain absolute prey density for all treatments. There was a negative relationship between conspecific density and mean individual length during the first half of the trial, which was attributed to food depletion between supplementary feedings at higher conspecific densities. The effect size (partial eta-squared) of conspecific density decreased considerably during the trial, to the point where the initial stocking density had no discernible effect on cohort growth or mortality rate. The apparent morphological deformity rate ranged from 17 to 32%, but did not differ between treatments. Jaw malformations were the most commonly observed deformity (12 to 30%). The weights of juveniles at the end of the trial were log-normally distributed, with some disproportionately large individuals skewing the weight distributions. There was substantial variation in mortality between and within treatments (74 to 97%), and the conspecific densities of each replicate at 30 DPH did not reflect the relative ordering of the initial treatments. Median individual weight was highly correlated with mortality and weight variance, and the positive skewness of populations decreased as mortality increased. Both trends indicated a strong population size-structuring mechanism. Given the controlled experimental conditions the size-structuring mechanism was not predation or cannibalism. Differential feeding success and an unidentified size-specific mortality agent are hypothesized to be the mechanisms by which mortality was able to strongly influence population size distributions. © Inter-Research 2011.

Gardner L.D.,Queensland University of Technology | Gardner L.D.,Bribie Island Research Center | Mills D.,University of The Sunshine Coast | Wiegand A.,University of The Sunshine Coast | And 3 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2011

Background: Biomineralization is a process encompassing all mineral containing tissues produced within an organism. One of the most dynamic examples of this process is the formation of the mollusk shell, comprising a variety of crystal phases and microstructures. The organic component incorporated within the shell is said to dictate this architecture. However general understanding of how this process is achieved remains ambiguous. The mantle is a conserved organ involved in shell formation throughout molluscs. Specifically the mantle is thought to be responsible for secreting the protein component of the shell. This study employs molecular approaches to determine the spatial expression of genes within the mantle tissue to further the elucidation of the shell biomineralization.Results: A microarray platform was custom generated (PmaxArray 1.0) from the pearl oyster Pinctada maxima. PmaxArray 1.0 consists of 4992 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) originating from mantle tissue. This microarray was used to analyze the spatial expression of ESTs throughout the mantle organ. The mantle was dissected into five discrete regions and analyzed for differential gene expression with PmaxArray 1.0. Over 2000 ESTs were determined to be differentially expressed among the tissue sections, identifying five major expression regions. In situ hybridization validated and further localized the expression for a subset of these ESTs. Comparative sequence similarity analysis of these ESTs revealed a number of the transcripts were novel while others showed significant sequence similarities to previously characterized shell related genes.Conclusions: This investigation has mapped the spatial distribution for over 2000 ESTs present on PmaxArray 1.0 with reference to specific locations of the mantle. Expression profile clusters have indicated at least five unique functioning zones in the mantle. Three of these zones are likely involved in shell related activities including formation of nacre, periostracum and calcitic prismatic microstructure. A number of novel and known transcripts have been identified from these clusters. The development of PmaxArray 1.0, and the spatial map of its ESTs expression in the mantle has begun characterizing the molecular mechanisms linking the organics and inorganics of the molluscan shell. © 2011 Gardner et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Macbeth G.M.,Khan Research Laboratories | Palmer P.J.,Bribie Island Research Center
Aquaculture | Year: 2011

Rapid genetic gains for growth in barramundi (Lates calcarifer) appear achievable by starting a breeding programme using foundation stock from progeny tested broodstock. The potential gains of this novel breeding design were investigated using biologically feasible scenarios tested with computer simulation models. The design involves the production of a large number of full-sib families using artificial mating which are compared in common growout conditions. The estimated breeding values of their paternal parents are calculated using a binomial probit analysis to assess their suitability as foundation broodstock. The programme can theoretically yield faster rates of genetic gain compared to other breeding programmes for aquaculture species. Assuming a heritability of 0.25 for growth, foundation broodstock evaluated in two years had breeding values for faster growth ranging from 21% to 51% depending on the genetic diversity of stock under evaluation. As a comparison it will take between nine and twenty-two years to identify broodstock with similar breeding values in a contemporary barramundi breeding programme. © 2011.

Mareddy V.R.,University of The Sunshine Coast | Mareddy V.R.,Bribie Island Research Center | Mareddy V.R.,Australian Seafood Cooperative Research Center | Rosen O.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | And 8 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2011

Sexual differentiation in male crustaceans is known to be controlled by the androgenic gland (AG), possibly through a peptide hormone. Recently, three freshwater and one marine crustacean decapod genes encoding AG-specific insulin-like peptides were characterized. We report here the molecular cloning of the complete sequence encoding an AG-specific insulin-like peptide (Pm-IAG) in the commercially important marine Penaeid prawn, Penaeus monodon. The deduced precursor sequence consists of a signal peptide, B chain, C peptide and an A chain. It exhibits the same structural organization as that of previously identified crustacean insulin-like androgenic gland specific peptides (IAGs). The positions of cysteine residues of the putative A and B chains, which govern the folding of the mature peptide via the formation of disulfide bridges, are highly conserved among the prawn and other crustaceans, while the rest of the amino acids show low sequence similarity. Gene expression analysis of Pm-IAG in several tissues, including the closely juxtaposed sperm duct and muscle, confirmed that it is specifically expressed in the AG. The findings suggest that with an appropriate intervention, sexual differentiation could be manipulated and thus might be instrumental for the establishment of monosex culture in this bimodally growing shrimp. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Palmer P.J.,Bribie Island Research Center
Aquaculture | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to investigate the productivity and functionality of sand filters stocked with marine worms for wastewater treatment at mariculture facilities. Medium bedding sand which is commonly available in coastal sedimentary deposits and nereidid polychaetes (Perinereis nuntia and P. helleri) from Moreton Bay in southeast Queensland were combined and studied in down-flow sand filtration beds. This combination appears to provide a new option for brackish wastewater treatment whereby the activities of the worms help to prevent sand filters from blocking with organic debris and their biomass offers a valuable by-product. Phytoplankton-rich pond waters percolating through sand-worm beds were reliably treated in several useful ways: suspended solids and chlorophyll a levels were consistently reduced by >50% by the process, and nutrients were converted into bio-available dissolved forms. Dissolved oxygen, redox and pH levels were also lowered significantly by the process. Water treatment rates of approx 1500Lm-2d-1 were routinely achieved. P. nuntia appeared more suitable than P. helleri for stocking directly into sand filtration beds as nectochaetes, but generally exhibited slower growth. Survival and growth were influenced by stocking density. Sand-filter beds stocked with juvenile worms and fed only with eutrophic pond water demonstrated polychaete production capacities in the order of 300-400gm-2 (eg. P. helleri: 328gm-2 in 16weeks). These results show how nereidid polychaetes can be reliably produced within simple, low-maintenance sand filters, and provide data necessary for the functional integration of this novel wastewater treatment system into contemporary seafood farming systems. © 2010.

PubMed | Bribie Island Research Center and University of Queensland
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of morphology | Year: 2016

Serial Block-Face Scanning Electron Microscopy (SBF-SEM) was used in this study to examine the ultrastructural morphology of Penaeus monodon spermatozoa. SBF-SEM provided a large dataset of sequential electron-microscopic-level images that facilitated comprehensive ultrastructural observations and three-dimensional reconstructions of the sperm cell. Reconstruction divulged a nuclear region of the spermatophoral spermatozoon filled with decondensed chromatin but with two apparent levels of packaging density. In addition, the nuclear region contained, not only numerous filamentous chromatin elements with dense microregions, but also large centrally gathered granular masses. Analysis of the sperm cytoplasm revealed the presence of degenerated mitochondria and membrane-less dense granules. A large electron-lucent vesicle and arch-like structures were apparent in the subacrosomal area, and an acrosomal core was found in the acrosomal vesicle. The spermatozoal spike arose from the inner membrane of the acrosomal vesicle, which was slightly bulbous in the middle region of the acrosomal vesicle, but then extended distally into a broad dense plate and to a sharp point proximally. This study has demonstrated that SBF-SEM is a powerful technique for the 3D ultrastructural reconstruction of prawn spermatozoa, that will no doubt be informative for further studies of sperm assessment, reproductive pathology and the spermiocladistics of penaeid prawns, and other decapod crustaceans.

PubMed | Bribie Island Research Center, University of The Sunshine Coast and Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology
Type: | Journal: SpringerPlus | Year: 2015

The transport of live fish is a crucial step to establish fish culture in captivity, and is especially challenging for species that have not been commonly cultured before, therefore transport and handling methods need to be optimized and tailored. This study describes the use of tuna tubes for small-scale transport of medium-sized pelagic fish from the Scombridae family. Tuna tubes are an array of vertical tubes that hold the fish, while fresh seawater is pumped up the tubes and through the fish mouth and gills, providing oxygen and removing wastes. In this study, 19 fish were captured using rod and line and 42% of the captured fish were transported alive in the custom-designed tuna tubes to an on-shore holding tank: five mackerel tuna (Euthynnus affinis) and three leaping bonito (Cybiosarda elegans). Out of these, just three (15.8% of total fish) acclimatized to the tanks condition. Based on these results, we discuss an improved design of the tuna tubes that has the potential to increase survival rates and enable a simple and low cost method of transporting of live pelagic fish.

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