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Curitiba, Brazil

Giuntini E.B.,University of Sao Paulo | Dan M.C.T.,University of Sao Paulo | Lui M.C.Y.,BRF SA | Lajolo F.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Menezes E.W.,University of Sao Paulo
Food Research International | Year: 2015

The ingestion of unavailable carbohydrates - functional ingredients - has presented an inverse relationship with the risk for chronic non-communicable diseases. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of addition of inulin to two ready-to-eat frozen meals on the release of gastrointestinal hormones and other parameters related to hunger and satiety. Prototypes of two different kinds of frozen meals were elaborated by the food industry: control meal (C1 and C2); and test meals, added inulin (T1 and T2). Three sequential clinical assays were performed with healthy volunteers: 1) evaluation of glycemic response (n = 16); 2) evaluation of gastrointestinal hormones related to satiety (n = 15); and 3) evaluation of satiety (by Visual Analogue Scale - VAS and energy intake) (n = 52). The meals showed low glycemic index and glycemic load, and T1 showed a decreased glycemic response peak compared to C1. The addition of inulin (~. 8. g) to the test meals (lunch) provided significant satiety, resulting in an decrease in energy intake of 419 (group 1) and 586. kJ (group 2) in the two subsequent meals (after 180. min and 360. min) and a decrease in hunger and increase in satiety at 120 and 180. min when comparing with control meals. A positive post-prandial variation was observed in the plasmatic levels of ghrelin and insulin in relation to the control meal (hormones related to hunger in high levels), after the intake of both two test meals. Inulin is an ingredient that presents several positive characteristics for the elaboration of products that stimulate healthy eating habits. These effects are currently being evaluated in medium-term trials. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Hoffmann Sarda F.A.,Food Research Center FAPESP | Hoffmann Sarda F.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Giuntini E.B.,Food Research Center FAPESP | Giuntini E.B.,University of Sao Paulo | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2016

Sources of dietary fibre can induce satiety and impact energy consumption. Herein, healthy volunteers consumed unripe banana flour (UBF), rich in resistant starch (5 g/8 g UBF), non-daily (3 times a week) for six weeks. The resistant starch (15 g/week) significantly reduced hunger and increased satiety parameters, as evaluated by the visual analogue scale (VAS) and area under the curve of ghrelin and peptide YY hormones. Changes in the VAS score and hormone levels were followed by a 14% reduction in energy intake at two subsequent meals in the UBF group. The fasting insulin after intake of UBF showed higher sensitivity by HOMA2-IR or QUICKI when compared to the baseline and control groups. These results suggest that UBF can be considered as a functional food ingredient that may contribute to reduced risks of certain non-communicable diseases owing to its high resistant starch levels. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Giuntini E.B.,University of Sao Paulo | Sarda F.A.H.,University of Sao Paulo | Lui M.C.Y.,BRF SA | Tadini C.C.,University of Sao Paulo | And 2 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2015

The intake of unavailable carbohydrates-functional ingredients-has presented an inverse relationship with the risk for non-communicable diseases. Inulin and unripe banana flour (UBF) (source of resistant starch-55%) are among these ingredients. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of regular and discontinued intake of inulin or UBF on the plasma levels of gastrointestinal hormones and energy intake in healthy volunteers. A medium-term clinical assay was conducted with healthy volunteers, both males and females (n = 33), who were oriented to consume soup with added inulin (INU group), UBF (UBF group) or maltodextrin (Control group) three times a week for six weeks. Prototypes of two different types of frozen soups were provided by a food industry. The plasma concentration of satiety-related gastrointestinal hormones was evaluated before and at the end of the intervention. Blood collection was performed 180. min after the consumption of breakfast ad libitum. The energy intake was evaluated at the subsequent meal (180. min). UBF consumption (8. g) caused significant changes in the plasmatic levels of the gastrointestinal hormones when compared to the period before the intervention: there was a lower increase in ghrelin (T0, T60, T120 and T180. min) and a decrease in insulin (T0 and T180. min), hormones related to hunger, when at high levels, as well as an increase in peptide YY (PYY) at all timepoints. When comparing the Control and UBF groups at the end of the intervention, the latter presented a reduction in ghrelin (T0, 120 and 180. min) and insulin (T0 and 180. min) and an increase in PYY (T30 and 180. min). The consumption of inulin (8. g), compared to the period before and at the end of the intervention, resulted in a lower increase in ghrelin (T0, T120 and T180. min) and a decrease in insulin (T180. min). PYY also increased at all timepoints, which indicates higher satiety. When the Control and INU groups were compared at the end of the intervention, the INU group presented reductions in ghrelin (T0, 120 and 180. min) and insulin (T180. min) and an increase in PYY (T180. min). At the subsequent meal, there was a reduction in energy intake of approximately 15% (129. kJ) for the UBF and 12% (130. kJ) for the INU groups. Both inulin and UBF present positive effects on gastrointestinal hormones and energy intake and may be used for producing products that stimulate healthy eating habits. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Galvao M.T.E.L.,University of Campinas | Moura D.B.,BRF SA | Barretto A.C.S.,Sao Judas Tadeu University | Pollonio M.A.R.,University of Campinas
Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

The impact of sodium chloride reduction and its substitution for micronized salt on consumer acceptance of turkey ham was investigated. Five formulations - F1 (control - 2.0% NaCl), F2 (1.7% NaCl), F3 (1.4% NaCl), F4 (1.7% micronized NaCl), and F5 (1.4% micronized NaCl) - were evaluated with respect to sodium chloride content and by consumers using a nine-point hedonic scale for overall acceptability and CATA (check-all-that-apply) using 24 sensory descriptors. Trained panelists characterized the products using the flash profiling technique. Reductions in the salt content by up to 30% did not affect the overall acceptability of the samples by the consumers. However, the consumers characterized the formulations with lower salt content as "less salty and less seasoned" in comparison to the contents in the control. Products containing 1.7% NaCl were considered very similar to the control. The results obtained indicate that it is possible to reduce NaCl content by 30% without affecting consumer acceptance of the product. The use of micronized salt did not affect the sensory characteristics when compared with those of formulations containing the same level of sodium chloride indicating that micronized salt does not influence perception of salt. Source

Zanella R.,Embrapa Swine and Poultry National Research Center | Zanella R.,University Of Passo Fundo | Peixoto J.O.,Embrapa Swine and Poultry National Research Center | Cardoso F.F.,Embrapa Southern Region Animal Husbandry | And 10 more authors.
Genetics Selection Evolution | Year: 2016

Background: Genetic improvement in livestock populations can be achieved without significantly affecting genetic diversity if mating systems and selection decisions take genetic relationships among individuals into consideration. The objective of this study was to examine the genetic diversity of two commercial breeds of pigs. Genotypes from 1168 Landrace (LA) and 1094 Large White (LW) animals from a commercial breeding program in Brazil were obtained using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 Beadchip. Inbreeding estimates based on pedigree (Fx) and genomic information using runs of homozygosity (FROH) and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) by SNP inbreeding coefficient (FSNP) were obtained. Linkage disequilibrium (LD), correlation of linkage phase (r) and effective population size (Ne) were also estimated. Results: Estimates of inbreeding obtained with pedigree information were lower than those obtained with genomic data in both breeds. We observed that the extent of LD was slightly larger at shorter distances between SNPs in the LW population than in the LA population, which indicates that the LW population was derived from a smaller Ne. Estimates of Ne based on genomic data were equal to 53 and 40 for the current populations of LA and LW, respectively. The correlation of linkage phase between the two breeds was equal to 0.77 at distances up to 50 kb, which suggests that genome-wide association and selection should be performed within breed. Although selection intensities have been stronger in the LA breed than in the LW breed, levels of genomic and pedigree inbreeding were lower for the LA than for the LW breed. Conclusions: The use of genomic data to evaluate population diversity in livestock animals can provide new and more precise insights about the effects of intense selection for production traits. Resulting information and knowledge can be used to effectively increase response to selection by appropriately managing the rate of inbreeding, minimizing negative effects of inbreeding depression and therefore maintaining desirable levels of genetic diversity. © 2016 Zanella et al. Source

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