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Brest University Hospital Center and Aix - Marseille University | Date: 2011-01-13

A compound which inhibits the importation of chloride into neurons and a compound which improve the outflow of chloride from neurons for the use in treatment of autism, a pharmaceutical composition for use in the treatment of autism including such compound and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier are described.

Modern treatment of RA includes the use of biologics. Their cost is high and comparison between different treatment strategies is needed. Direct medical costs of RA in France were evaluated based on expert opinion. Then, simulation-decision analytical models were developed to assess four biologic treatment sequences over 2 years in patients failing to respond to at least one anti-TNF agent. Effectiveness was expressed in theoretical expected number of days (TEND) in remission or low disease activity [low disease activity score (LDAS)] based on DAS-28 scores. Direct medical costs of RA in France (excluding the cost of biologics) were estimated at euro 905 (s.d. 263) for 6 months and euro 696 (s.d. 240) for each subsequent 6 months (P < 0.001) for patients achieving LDAS and euro 1215 for 6 months (s.d. 405) for patients not achieving LDAS. Based on LDAS criteria, using abatacept after an inadequate response to the first anti-TNF agent (etanercept) appeared significantly (P < 0.01) more efficacious over a 2-year period (102 TEND) compared with using rituximab at a 6-month re-treatment interval (82 TEND). Mean cost-effectiveness ratios showed significantly lower costs (P < 0.01) per TEND with abatacept as second biologic agent (euro 278) compared with rituximab (euro 303). After an inadequate response to two anti-TNF agents, using abatacept also appeared significantly more efficacious than an anti-TNF agent (P < 0.01). All comparisons were confirmed when using remission criteria instead of LDAS. Advanced simulation models based on clinical evidence and medical practice appear to be a promising approach for comparing cost-effectiveness of biologic strategies in RA. Source

OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were (a) to describe the characteristics of all incident cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma diagnosed in the population of the Finistère area between 2002 and 2011, (b) to report on their therapeutic management, and (c) to analyze survival and prognostic factors. METHODS: All residents of the administrative region of Finistère who were diagnosed with pancreatic adenocarcinoma between January 2002 and December 2011 were registered in the digestive cancer registry. Survival data were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and were compared using log-rank tests. Multivariate analysis was performed using a binary logistic regression model to identify prognostic factors. RESULTS: A total of 1002 patients with a pancreatic adenocarcinoma were registered, of whom 60% had metastases at diagnosis. Only 10% of patients underwent a potentially curative negative margin resection (R0); their median survival was 22.0 months. The median survival of the overall population was 4.1 months. The stages of the disease and the patientʼs age were independent prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the dramatic prognosis of this cancer. Because the tumor stage is the main prognostic factor in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, efforts should focus on the earlier diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Carrier M.,University of Ottawa | Carrier M.,Ottawa Hospital Research Institute | Righini M.,University of Geneva | Le Gal G.,Brest University Hospital Center
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis

The introduction of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has led to an increase in the incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) diagnosis. However, the case fatality rate is lower and the mortality rates of PE have remained unchanged, suggesting a lower severity of illness. Specifically, the multiple-detector CTPA increased the rate of subsegmental filling defect reported in patients with suspected PE. Whether these filling defects reported on CTPA would correlate with true subsegmental PE (SSPE) on pulmonary angiography or are actually artifacts is unknown. The inter-observer agreement for SSPE diagnosis among radiologists with varied levels of experience is low (κ of 0.38; 95% CI, 0.0-0.89). Furthermore, the clinical importance of a symptomatic SSPE diagnosed by CTPA is unclear. SSPE are frequent on pulmonary angiography in patients with a low probability ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scan for suspected PE. Several prospective management cohort studies have demonstrated that patients with low or intermediate V/Q scan results can be safely managed without anticoagulation by combining the scan results with the pretest probability (PTP) of PE and compression ultrasonography. Although clinical equipoise exists, the majority of patients diagnosed with SSPE on CTPA are currently treated with anticoagulant therapy. Only a small number of patients with SSPE diagnosed by CTPA and without DVT who did not receive anticoagulation treatment have been reported in the literature. None of these patients suffered recurrent symptomatic VTE (PE or DVT) during the 3-month follow-up period (0%; 95% CI, 0-7.4%), suggesting that SSPE might be clinically unimportant. These conclusions are only hypothesis generating and need to be confirmed in prospective clinical management studies before changing clinical practice. © 2012 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Source

Marcorelles P.,Brest University Hospital Center | Laquerriere A.,University of Rouen
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics

Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a brain malformation which results from a primary defect in induction and patterning of the rostral neural tube during early embryogenesis and usually considered as an impaired cleavage of the prosencephalon. The review of neuropathologic findings highlights a complex malformation involving not only the prosencephalon but also the whole brain, the eyes, and the cerebral vascularization. The classical form of HPE is divided in three sub-types according to DeMyer classification, although the spectrum is far wider, ranging from the most severe, aprosencephaly/atelencephaly, to milder forms such as syntelencephaly and to the less severe ends of the spectrum. Macroscopy and microscopy abnormality patterns are described extensively, allowing a comparison of the anatomic features between each form. Disturbances observed in the main cerebral structures including the basal ganglia, the commissures, the hippocampus, the brainstem, the cerebellum, and spinal cord are reviewed. Macroscopic and microscopic features of the ophthalmic anomalies are described, as well as brain vascular and associated central nervous system malformations. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

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